1. Tafseer Fakhrud-Deen ar-Raazee, Mafaateeh al-Ghayb
Fakhrud-Deen ibn ‘Alee ar-Raazee (1150-1210 CE/544-606 AH) was a Shaafi‘ee scholar who excelled in the grammatical sciences as well as philosophy.
His tafseer is printed in eight large volumes; however, his contemporaries mentioned that Fakhrud-Deen did not complete his tafseer. It has been suggested that the work was completed by his disciple, Shams ad-Deen Ahmad ibn al Khaleel al-Khuwayyee.
Ar-Raazee’s tafseer is quite popular among scholars due to its extensive treatment of various topics from a wide range of sciences. This tafseer is noted for its concentration on the relationship between verses and chapters. However, the tafseer is, for the most part, like an encyclopedia of natural sciences. The author delves into mathematics and natural sciences and evaluates the opinions of astronomers and philosophers using their terminology. The various arguments of the Mu‘tazilah are mentioned and mildly refuted and the positions of the various fiqh math-habs are explained whenever verses containing legal issues appear. However, he always favors his school, the Shaafi‘ee math-hab on legal issues. Ar-Raazee also discussed grammatical issues, but to a much lesser extent than his discussions of natural sciences.
2. Tafseer al-Qurtubee, Jaami‘ Ahkaam al-Qur’an wa al-Mubayyin li Maa Tadammana min as-Sunnah wa Aay al-Furqaan
Aboo ‘Abdillaah Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Ansaaree al-Qurtubee (d. 1273 CE/671 AH) was born in Cordoba in what is now Spain. He started his studies there and participated in jihaad against the Christians, in the course of which he was captured, but he managed to escape.  He eventually travelled to the east, settling in Egypt, where he died. He is most famous for his tafseer, but he is also noted for his book on the afterlife, at-Tathkirah bi Ahwaal al-Mawta a wa Ahwaal al-Aakhirah and a book on zuhd, the downplaying of worldly ambitions in order to concentrate on success in the hereafter.
His tafseer starts with an introduction of some seventy pages on the virtues of the Qur’an, the etiquettes of its recitation and the proper methodology of tafseer . The tafseer is characterized by a heavy emphasis on fiqh issues, but it is by no means limited to that. One may consider al-Qurtubee’s work in the category of attafseer bid-diraaya h because fiqh by its nature involves deductions from the texts. However, he includes the hadeeths relevant to each verse, as well as explanations of the sahaabah, taabi‘oon and major scholars, although usually stripped of the isnaad. When quoting a hadeeth, he cites the book where it may be found or the author who mentioned it. After presenting the text of a verse, he will state the number of issues relating to it that he plans to discuss. He usually starts with an explanation of the vocabulary of the verse, quoting a line or two of poetry to illustrate the definition of any difficult words. He also mentions variant recitations and their reciters. In discussing fiqh issues, he mentions the major opinions along with their evidence, and then evaluates them. He generally supports the Maalikee position, although not always. He also refutes deviant sects like the Shee‘ah, the Mu‘tazilah, and the Qadareeyah, but he does so with scholarly etiquette. His tafseer is considered one of the monumental works in this field, and is indispensable for the fiqh issues of the Qur’an.
3. Tafseer al-Baydaawee, Anwaar at-Tanzeel wa Asraar at-Ta’weel Naasirud-Deen, ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Alee al-Baydaawee (d. 1291 CE/691 AH) was a Persian scholar of the Shaafi‘ee math-ha b and was appointed chief judge of Shiraaz. His tafseer was an abridgement of al-Kash-shaaf by az-Zamakhsharee, with most of the Mu‘tazilee philosophy deleted. However, he does occasionally get caught up in az-Zamakhsharee’s explanations. He has also followed azZamakhsharee’s practice of mentioning at the end of every chapter weak and fabricated hadeeths extolling the virtues of reading that chapter. Al-Baydaawee draws some of his material from Mafaateeh al-Ghayb of ar-Raazee and Tafseer ar-Raaghib al-Isfahaanee and includes narrations from the sahaabah and the taabi‘oon. Hence, he does not leave any verse about the wonders of creation without expounding on the theories and facts of natural sciences. He also mentions Qur’anic recitations, but does not limit himself to the authentic ones.
Nevertheless, the tafseer is quite free from Israa’eeleeyaat. Its language is also very polished and elegant. Islaamic scholars throughout the ages have held this tafseer in high esteem, and many commentaries on it and annotated versions of it have been produced.
4. Tafseer an-Nasafee, Madaarik at-Tanzeel wa Haqaa’iq at-Ta’weel
‘Abdullaah ibn Mahmood an-Nasafee (d. 1302 CE/701 AH) was a Hanafee scholar of wide renown. He wrote numerous books on usool al-fiqh and commentaries on earlier works. His tafseer was an abridgement of al Baydaawee’s tafseer in which he deleted the fabricated hadeeths on the virtues of each chapter. In his discussions of the various recitations, he limits himself to the authentic seven and attributes each to its reciter. An-Nasafee debated the various legal issues connected with verses by explaining the arguments of each math-hab, refuting them and supporting the positions of his own math-ha b, the Hanafee school. Discussions of grammatical issues are mostly very brief. On the whole, the tafseer is medium-sized and its style is brief and clear.
5. Tafseer al-Khaazin, Lubaab at-Ta’weel fee Ma‘aani at-Tanzeel
‘Alee ibn Khaleel ash-Shayhee (1279-1340 CE/678-740 AH) was known by the nickname of “ al-Khaazin” (the warehouseman) because he used to be incharge of a book warehouse in Damascus. This Shaafi‘ee scholar was born and raised in Baghdaad, but did the greater part of his studies in Damascus. He wrote a vast number of books on a variety of topics, such as the ten-volume work called Maqbool al-Manqool, in which he gathered the hadeeths found in the Musnads of ash-Shaafi‘ee and Ahmad, the six major books, the Muwatta’ of Maalik, and the Suna n of ad-Daaraqutnee. His tafseer is a condensed version of al-Baghawee tafseer with additions from earlier tafseers. He mentions many Biblical tales (Israa’eeleeyaat) without evaluating them. Al-Khaazin also wrote extensively on the battles which took place during the Prophet’s era wherever mention was made of them in the verses. His tafseer also deals with legal issues in great detail, sometimes touching on areas not related to tafseer at all. There is also great emphasis in the tafseer on spiritual lessons and advice, a reflection of alKhaazin’s Soofee leanings. The tafseer is in seven medium-sized volumes and is in wide circulation and is particularly liked by those who enjoy stories; however, the tafseer needs critical revision before being used as a reliable reference for scholars.
6. Tafseer Abee Hayyaan, al-Bahr al-Muheet
Muhammad ibn Yoosuf ibn Hayyaan al-Andaloosee (1256-1344 CE/654-745 AH), more commonly known by the name Aboo Hayyaan, was a scholar in the field of recitations and poetry and was a master in the field of grammar. In his early years, he belonged to the Thaahiree school of law, but later left it for the Shaafi‘ee school. He studied in schools throughout North Africa and eventually settled in Egypt. This tafseer is in eight large volumes and is widely used by scholars as an important reference work on grammatical constructions in the Qur’an. Aboo Hayyaan mentions in detail the differences among grammarians and makes most of his tafseer from a grammatical point of view, so much so that it bears a closer resemblance to a grammar book than it does to a tafseer of the Qur’an. However, he does develop the other areas of tafseer, such as fiqh issues, recitations, Qur’anic eloquence, and narrations from early orthodox scholars. In numerous places, he also refutes many of az-Zamakhsharee’s philosophical arguments, as well as his grammatical positions.
7. Tafseer an-Naysaabooree, Gharaa’ib al-Qur’an wa Raghaa’ib al-Furqaan
Nithaamud-Deen ibn al-Hasan an-Naysaabooree (d.1328 CE/728 AH), nicknamed an-Nithaam al-A‘raj, was born in Qum, but grew up in Nishapur, where he became a famous literary scholar, grammarian, and Qur’an reciter. An-Naysaabooree wrote his tafseer by critically condensing ar-Raazee’s tafseer, adding additional material from al-Kash-shaaf and other tafseers, as well as tafseers of the sahaabah and taabi‘oon. The format used in his tafseer is quite unique among tafseers. After mentioning the verse, he mentions the various recitations, carefully attributing them to one of the ten major reciters. Then he mentions the possible places where pauses may take place and explains the resulting meanings of the verse. After that, he discusses the relationship between verses and begins the tafseer by explaining the grammatical meaning of the verses. He then mentions the fiqh issues and the opinions of the various philosophical and theological arguments, firmly defending the orthodox position of Ahl as-Sunnah. Verses concerning the wonders of creation are discussed from the viewpoint of natural sciences. Due to the author’s strong Soofee leanings, he delves into the spiritual implications and his personal enlightenment at the end of each verse’s tafseer. This tafseer is presently printed in the margin of one edition of Tafseer at-Tabaree and is widely read by scholars.
 See Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam, p. 470.
 See at-Tafseer wal-Mufassiroon, vol. 1, pp. 298-304.
 See al-Jaami‘ li Ahkaam al-Qur’an, vol. 10, pp. 175-6.
 See Shatharaat ath-Thahab, vol.5, p.335, and al-Jaami‘ li Ahkaam al-Qur’an, vol. 1, publisher’s preface.
 See al-Ja ami‘ li Ahkaam al-Qur’an, vol.1, pp. 6-7, Author’s Introduction, and al Mabaahith fee ‘Uloom al-Qur’an, p. 391.
 See at-Tafseer wal-Mufassiroon, vol. 1, pp. 304-11.
 See at-Tafseer wal-Mufassiroon, vol. 1, pp. 311-17.
 See at-Tafseer wal-Mufassiroon, vol. 1, pp. 318-24.
 Ibid., vol. 1, pp. 325-9.
 See at-Tafseer wal-Mufassiroon, vol. 1, pp. 329-40.
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