One should understand that miracles given to a prophet are classified as such because they surpass the capability of any human endeavour, they are supernatural. On the other hand, there are things, human beings have the potential of doing but Allah prevents them from their doing, for example no created being is capable of composing the Qur’an. When the Prophet (Peace and blessing be upon him) challenged those who belied him to produce something similar to the Qur’an, it was in order to demonstrate the incapacity of even the most eloquent of human beings. It is beyond the power of any created being to give life to the deceased, turn a staff into a snake, bring the she-camel out of the rock, cause a tree to speak, water to flow from between the fingers or split the moon in half. Allah alone is the One capable of such things, and they are among the miracles given to the prophets of Allah through their hands. One should also be aware that the miracles that appeared through the hand of Prophet Mohammed (Peace and blessing be upon him) are the proofs of his Prophethood and the signs of his truthfulness.
Prophet Mohammed (Peace and blessing be upon him) is the Messenger to whom the most miracles were given and the one to whom the clearest signs and proofs were given. His miracles are too numerous to be counted. Each and every verse of the Qur’an is in itself a miracle, and no one has ever been able to meet his challenge to produce even a short chapter such as “Al-Kawthar", nor yet a single verse similar to those of the Qur’an. The miracles given to Prophet Mohammed (Peace and blessing be upon him) are of two categories.
The first comprises of those that are well known and transmitted through many hands such as the Qur’an. None can doubt or argue that the Prophet (Peace and blessing be upon him) did not deliver it, and it is through him that it appeared, and also that he used it as a proof. If an arrogant self-opinionated denier rejects this, then it is similar to denying that Prophet Mohammed (Peace and blessing be upon him) existed! As we mentioned earlier the Qur’an itself is a miracle and contains a multitude of miracles, and the fact that no one can imitate it is indisputable and proven by investigation as we will explain later. A scholar of Islam explained, "This principle is relevant to the signs and the surpassing of normal phenomena that occurred at the hands of the Prophet (Peace and blessing be upon him) all of which attain an unquestionable level. Neither believer nor unbeliever disputed the occurrence that these extraordinary matters occurred at his hands. The claim of the unbelievers is that they were not from Allah."
The second consists of matters that do not reach the level of the Qur’an and this is in itself divided into two types.
One is comprised of miracles that are very well-known and transmitted in the form of hadith, and the prophetic events (seerah), and include such miracles as the water that flowed from his blessed fingers and a small amount of food becoming plentiful. Then, there are also matters that were made known to just a couple of people, so consequently there are only a few transmitters and therefore not as well known or widely reported as the previous type, but they are found to be compatible and both are confirmation of miracles. As for the signs given to the Prophet (Peace and blessing be upon him) there are without doubt many. For example the event of the splitting in half of the moon, this great miracle is recorded in both the Qur’an and prophetic sayings. Unless there is absolute proof, the literal meaning should never be taken as other than such. Its occurrence is supported by authenticated reports transmitted from a variety of sources. Therefore one's criteria should be to uphold it, and not be way-laid by the foolishness of weak-minded persons ignorant of the religion, nor yet should one consider the opinion of innovators who cast doubt in the heart of believers, rather, one should turn away from such foolishness. The same applies to the miraculous events of the water that flowed from the Prophet's fingers, and the small amount of food becoming plentiful, both of which were witnessed and reported by numerous Companions. Many of the closest Companions also witnessed and reported the occurrence of miracles, for example, those that occurred during the digging of the Trench, the Battle of Buwat, at Hudaybiah, Tabuk, as well as during other encounters with the unbelievers. None of the Companions who transmitted these miracles were found to contradict one another either in what the Prophet (Peace and blessing be upon him) said or did. Neither did they raise any objections to the statements attributed to them when they were transmitted later. It might be asked why some of the Companions did not report certain miracles and remained silent, the answer is that they did not remain silent about anything that was untrue, nor yet were they given to untruthful flattery, their character was to speak up. Neither desire nor fear prevented them from doing so, if they heard something that was in general recognized as being untrue or if it was unknown to them; their policy was that of rejection. Some however, recognized matters relating to the prophetic way whereas others did not.
As for the weak or falsely attributed quotations purported to have been said by the Prophet (Peace and blessing be upon him) these too are well documented together with the name of the originating liar and classified accordingly in the science of falsely attributed Prophetic sayings. There are some signs in the prophetic quotations that may have appeared as somewhat obscure when first spoken. These quotations have been used by those who oppose Islam to undermine and weaken the strength of reports; however, with the passage of time, much to the disappointment of the opposition, these signs have become a reality. The same applies to the reports of the Prophet (Peace and blessing be upon him) relating to the Unseen and his prophesy of events that were yet to be made manifest, they can no longer be used as a tool of the opposition.
Qadi Iyyad tells us that the above has been stated by the Imams, Judge Abu Bakr al-Baqillani, Abu Bakr, Furak's son as well as other notables and that everything known to him is verifiable. He also says that should anyone claim these stories only reached us by the report of one person, then the claimant is not well versed in either the reports, transmissions and other sciences. The Judge, as further proof, also informs us that whosoever studies the linkage between transmitters of either the prophetic quotations or the history cannot fail to validate the reported miracles and it is by no means unlikely for a person to receive knowledge from numerous sources of transmitters, and another person not. Allah willing (insha Allah), more of these miracles will be discussed in a later section, and clarified.
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