Then the Prophet Muhammad and his companions settled at Yathrib, this city changed its name, and henceforth was called “Al-Medienah Al-Munawara,” the illuminated city, or more shortly Al-Madienah, the city. It is situated about an eleven day journey to the north of Makkah. At the time it was ruled by two Kahtanite tribes, namely Aws and Khazraj. These two tribes, however, were constantly quarrelling among themselves. It was only about the time when the Prophet announced his mission at Makkah that these tribes, after long years of continuous warfare, entered on a period of comparative peace. When the Prophet settled at Al-Madienah, the tribes of Aws and Khazraj forgetting entirely their old feuds were united together in the bond of Islam. Their old divisions were soon wiped out, and the ‘Ansar’, the helpers of the Prophet, became the common title of all Medinites who had helped the Prophet in his cause. Those who emigrated with him from Makkah received the title of “Muhajereen” or “The Emigrants”. The Prophet, in order to unite both classes in closer bonds, established between them a brotherhood, which linked them together as children of the same parents, with the Prophet as their guardian.
The first step the Prophet took, after his settlement at Al-Madienah, was to build a mosque for the worship of God, according to principles of Islam. Also houses for the accomm-odation of the emigrants were soon erected.
Al-Madienah and its suburbs being at this time inhabited by three distinct parties, the Emigrants, the Helpers and the Jews, the Prophet in order to weld them together into an orderly federation, granted a charter to the people clearly defining their rights and obligations. This charter represented the framework of the first Ummah organised by the Prophet, and dwelt chiefly on precepts of Islam. It started thus:
“In the name of God the most Merciful and Compassionate, this Charter is given by Muhammad, the Apostle of God, to all believers, whether of Quraish or Al-Madienah, and all individuals of whatever origin who have made common cause with them, who shall all constitute one nation.” The following are some extracts from the Charter: “The state of peace and war shall be common to all Muslims; no one among them shall have the right of concluding peace with, or declaring war against, the enemies of his co-religionists. The Jews who attach themselves to our Ummah, shall be protected from all offences and annoyances; they an equal right with our own people, to our assistance and good duties, the Jews of the various branches, and all others lived in Al-Madienah shall form with the Muslims one composite nation; they shall practice their religion as freely as the Muslims. The allies of the Jews shall enjoy the same security and freedom. The guilty shall be pursued and punished. The Jews shall join the Muslims in defending Al-Madienah against all enemies. The internal of Al-Madienah shall be a sacred place for all who accept this charter. All true Muslims shall hold in abhorrence every man guilty of crime, injustice or disorder; no one shall uphold the blameworthy, though he be his nearest kin.”  After dealing with the interior management of the State, the charter concluded as follows: “All future disputes arising among those who accept this charter, shall be referred, under God, to the Prophet.” 
Thus this charter put an end to the state of anarchy that prevailed among the Arabs. It constituted the Prophet Muhammad as chief magistrate of the nation. The party of the Ansars or helpers included some non-enthusiastic converts who retained an ill–concealed fondness for idolatry. These were headed by Abdullah Ibn
 Sir W. Muir G. Sale.
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