All praise be to Allah and peace be upon His Messenger (peace be upon him). I bear witness that there is no god but Allah alone who has no partner and I bear witness that Muhammad is His Servant and Messenger:
One of the great gates of goodness to which the Law-Giver exhorted and urged is charity.
Allah (may He be Exalted) says: "And spend (in charity) of that with which We have provided you before death comes to one of you, and he says: "My Lord! If only You would give me respite for a little while (i.e. return to the worldly life), then I should give Sadaqah (i.e. Zakât of my wealth), and be among the righteous [i.e. perform Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah) and other good deeds]." [Surat Al Munafiqun: 10].
Allah (Exalted be He) says: "And whatsoever you spend of anything (in Allâh's Cause), He will replace it. And He is the Best of providers." [Surat Saba': 39].
Allah (Exalted be He) says: "Those who spend their wealth (in Allâh's Cause) by night and day, in secret and in public, they shall have their reward with their Lord. On them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve." [Surat Al Baqarah: 274].
Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "Allah (may He be Exalted) says: Spend (O man), and I shall spend on you. He also said: Allah's Hand is full, and (its fullness) is not affected by the continuous spending night and day." 
This is a promise from Allah that He shall spend on those who spend in His Cause; and Allah (Blessed and Exalted be He) does not break His Promise.
Abu Dhar (may Allah be pleased with him) said: "Once I went to the Prophet (peace be upon him) while he was sitting in the shade of the Ka`bah. When he saw me, He said: They are the losers, by the Lord of the Ka`bah! I could not remain quiet, and Allah knows in what sorrowful state I was at that time. So I said: Who are they (the losers)? Let My father and mother be sacrificed for you, O Allah's Messenger! He said: They are the wealthy people, except the one who does like this and like this and like this (i.e., spends of his wealth in Allah's Cause)." 
Anas ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) said: "Abu Talha had more property of date-palm trees gardens than any other amongst the Ansar in Medina and the most beloved of them to him was Bayruha' garden which was in front of the Prophet's Masjid. Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) used to go there and used to drink its nice water. Anas added: When these Ayahs were revealed: "By no means shall you attain Al-Birr (piety, righteousness - here it means Allâh's Reward, i.e. Paradise), unless you spend (in Allâh's Cause) of that which you love." [Surat Al `Imran: 92] Abu Talha went to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and said: Allah (Glory be to Him) says in His Book: "By no means shall you attain righteousness, unless you spend (in charity) of that which you love."And no doubt, Bayruha' garden is the most beloved of all my property to me. So, I want to give it in charity in Allah's Cause. I expect its reward from Allah. O Allah's Messenger! Spend it where Allah makes you think it feasible.
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "Bravo! It is gainful property. It is a gainful property. I have heard what you have said (O Abu Talha), and I think it would be proper if you gave it to your kith and kin. Then Abu Talhah distributed that garden amongst his relatives and his cousins." 
Ibn Al Qayyim said: Giving and charity were the most beloved thing to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his joy of giving was more than the joy of taking. Moreover, he was the most generous with goodness, and his right hand was like the sent wind. When a needy came to him, he would prefer him to himself sometime with food and some time with clothes. The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to command the people with charity, and exhorted to it by words and actions.
Therefore, the Prophet (peace be upon him) was the most cheering, the best in morals, and the soft-hearted because charity and good deeds have an amazing effect on expanding the chest. 
Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: Nothing is more delighting to me than this that Uhud should be of gold for me, and no dinar is left with me out of it before three nights pass except a dinar which I would set aside for the repayment of debt upon me." When the Prophet (peace be upon him) was asked: "Which charity is the best? He said: "The charity which you practice while you are healthy, niggard, afraid of poverty, and wish to become wealthy. Do not delay it to the time of approaching death and then say, 'Give so much to such and such, and so much to such and such.' And it has already belonged to such and such (as it is too late)."
Virtues of charity: If it is earned from a lawful gain exclusively for the sake of Allah (may He be Exalted), Allah (may He be Exalted) accepts it by His Grace and doubles its reward many times, for Allah is the Possessor of great bounty.
Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "If one gives in charity what equals one date-fruit from the honestly-earned money and Allah accepts only the honestly earned money - Allah takes it in His right (hand) and then enlarges its reward for that person (who has given it), as anyone of you brings up his baby horse, so much so that it becomes as big as a mountain." 
A believer will come on the Day of Recompense and his good deeds are as heavy as mountains, so he becomes glad with the reward of Allah.
Expiation of sins: Mu`adh ibn Jabal (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said to him: "Shall I guide you to the gates of goodness? Fasting is a screen (from Hell), Charity extinguishes (i.e., removes) the sins as water extinguishes fire." 
Increase of wealth: Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Wealth is not diminished by giving (in charity)."
Sitting in the shade of charity on the Day of Recompense: Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Allah will give shade to seven kinds of people on the Day when there will be no shade but His." Of them is: "A person who practices charity so secretly that his left hand does not know what his right hand has given (i.e. nobody knows how much he has given in charity)." 
On the Day of Recompense a scholar will come with his knowledge, a Mujahid with his Jihad (fighting), a Praying person with his Salah, a fasting person with his fasting, and a giver of charity with knowledge, Jihad, Salah, and fasting because he had printed the books of scholars and gave them for charity for Muslims, built masjids for Muslims to offer Salah in, helped the Mujahedeen in the way of Allah with money, and made the fasting people break their fast at his expenses, so he shall have the reward of all those people; this is the favor of Allah which He gives to whomever He wants, for Allah is the Possessor of great bounty.
Charity protects a person from many evils and calamities. Ibn Al Qayyim (may Allah bestow mercy on his soul) said: "This is something known to the common and the elite, and all the people are closely connected with it because they have tested it even if this charity was given by an oppressor or a disbeliever, Allah will ward off many evils and calamities from him." 
One of the best types of charity is the everlasting which continues with the servant even after his death such as well digging, building masjids, printing books, supporting the sessions of teaching the Glorious Qur'an, and fixing charitable endowments for the poor and the needy...etc.
Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "When a man dies, his deeds come to an end except for three things: Sadaqah Jariyah (ceaseless charity); a knowledge which is beneficial, or a virtuous decendant who prays for him (for the deceased)." 
The one who gives in charity should observe the following matters: Sincerity for Allah (may He be Glorified and Exalted) in regard to his charity, to beware not to give bad food or clothes in charity, not to follow his charity with harm and reminding the given of the charity, withhold his charity, despise his charity, or withdraw his charity.
Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds [i.e., people]. May Allah send His Peace and Blessings upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and all his Companions!
 Ceaseless pouring which does not diminish the charity.
 Sahih Al Bukhari (3/242) No. (4684) and Sahih Muslim (2/690) No. (993).
 I could not stand still without asking.
 Sahih Al Bukhari (4/217) No. (6638) and Sahih Muslim (2/686) No. (990).
 Sahih Al Bukhari (1/452) No. (1461) and Sahih Muslim (2/693) No. (998).
 Zad Al Ma`ad (2/22 - 23) with paraphrasing.
 Sahih Al Bukhari (4/181) No. (6444) and Sahih Muslim (2/678) No. (991).
 Sahih Muslim (2/716) No. (1032) from the Hadith of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him).
 Sahih Al Bukhari (1/435) No. (1410) and Sahih Muslim (2/702) No. (1014).
 Sunan At-Tirmidhy (5/12) No. (2616).
 Sahih Muslim (4/2001) No. (2588).
Sahih Al Bukhari (1/440) No. (1423) and Sahih Muslim (2/715) No. (1031).
 Al Wabil As-Sayyib Min Al Kalim At-Tayyib (P. 50).
 Sahih Muslim (3/1255) No. (1631).
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