First, the Glorious Qur'an:
"And (remember) when We took a covenant from the Children of Israel, (saying): Worship none but Allâh (Alone) and be dutiful and good to parents, and to kindred, and to orphans and to Al Masâkîn (the needy), and speak good to people (i.e. enjoin righteousness and forbid evil, and say the truth about Muhammad peace be upon him), and perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât), and give Zakât. Then you slid back, except a few of you, while you are backsliders. (Tafsîr Al Qurtubî)." [Surat Al Baqarah: 83].
"And hold fast, all of you together, to the Rope of Allâh (i.e. this Qur'ân), and be not divided among yourselves, and remember Allâh's Favor on you, for you were enemies one to another but He joined your hearts together, so that, by His Grace, you became brethren (in Islâmic Faith), and you were on the brink of a pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus Allâh makes His Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.,) clear to you, that you may be guided." [Surat Al `Imran: 103].
"And whoever of you have not the means wherewith to wed free, believing women, they may wed believing girls from among those (slaves) whom your right hands possess, and Allâh has full knowledge about your Faith; you are one from another. Wed them with the permission of their own folk (guardians, Auliyâ' or masters) and give them their Mahr according to what is reasonable; they (the above said captive and slave-girls) should be chaste, not committing illegal sex, nor taking boy-friends. And after they have been taken in wedlock, if they commit illegal sexual intercourse, their punishment is half that for free (unmarried) women. This is for him among you who is afraid of being harmed in his religion or in his body; but it is better for you that you practise self-restraint, and Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." [Surat An-Nisa': 25].
"Because of that We ordained for the Children of Israel that if anyone killed a person not in retaliation of murder, or (and) to spread mischief in the land - it would be as if he killed all mankind, and if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all mankind. And indeed, there came to them Our Messengers with clear proofs, evidences, and signs, even then after that many of them continued to exceed the limits (e.g. by doing oppression unjustly and exceeding beyond the limits set by Allah by committing the major sins) in the land!." [Surat Al Ma'idah: 32].
"But if they repent, perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât) and give Zakât, then they are your brethren in religion. (In this way) We explain the Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) in detail for a people who know." [Surat At-Tawbah: 11].
"And We shall remove from their breasts any deep feeling of bitterness (that they may have). (So they will be like) brothers facing each other on thrones." [Surat Al Hijr: 47].
"Friends on that Day will be foes one to another except Al-Muttaqûn (the pious)." [Surat Az-Zukhruf: 67].
"The believers are nothing else than brothers (in Islâmic religion). So make reconciliation between your brothers, and fear Allâh, that you may receive mercy." [Surat Al Hujurat: 10].
"O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you with Allâh is that (believer) who has At-Taqwâ [i.e. he is one of the Muttaqûn (the pious)]. Verily, Allâh is All-Knowing, Well-Acquainted (with all things)." [Surat Al Hujurat: 13].
"And (remember) the Day when the Zâlim (wrong-doer, oppressor, polytheist) will bite at his hands, he will say: "Oh! Would that I had taken a path with the Messenger (Muhammad peace be upon him). * Ah! Woe to me! Would that I had never taken so-and-so as a friend! * He indeed led me astray from the Reminder (this Quran) after it had come to me. And Shaitan (Satan) is ever a deserter to man in the hour of need." [Surat Al Furqan: 27 - 29].
"And We have enjoined on man (to be dutiful and good) to his parents. His mother bore him in weakness and hardship upon weakness and hardship, and his weaning is in two years - give thanks to Me and to your parents. To Me is the final destination. * But if they (both) strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not; but behave with them in the world kindly, and follow the path of him who turns to Me in repentance and in obedience. Then to Me will be your return, and I shall tell you what you used to do." [Surat Luqman: 14 - 15].
"And warn your tribe (O Muhammad peace be upon him) of near kindred. * And be kind and humble to the believers who follow you. * Then if they disobey you, say: I am innocent of what you do." [Surat Ash-Shu`ara': 214 - 216].
Second, the Prophetic Hadith:
The first Hadith:
Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that a man came to Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) and said, "O Allah's Messenger! Who is more entitled to be treated with the best companionship by me?" The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "Your mother." The man said. "Who is next?" The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "Your mother." The man further said, "Who is next?" The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "Your mother." The man asked for the fourth time: "Who is next?" The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "Your father."
The second Hadith:
Abu `Abdur-Rahman As-Sulamy informed us that he heard Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al Mulamaty saying: I heard Abu Al Husayn Al Warraq saying: I asked Abu `Uthman about companionship and he said: Companionship is being with Allah with good manner and continuous fear of Him. As for the companionship with the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) is: Following his Sunnah and following the outward meaning of knowledge. As for the companionship with the people of knowledge, respecting them and not speaking badly about them. As for companionship with one's family, treat them kindly. As for companionship with friends, smile at them. As for companionship with ignorant people, invoke Allah for them with mercy and invoke Allah that you are not inflicted like them."
The third Hadith:
`Abdullah reported that one of disbelievers accompanied him and when they passed a vault, the road became wide, but `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud followed the disbeliever and said: "As-Salamu `Alaykum." The disbeliever said: Is not it reprehensible to start me with Salam? He said: Yes, but you have the right of companionship."
The fourth Hadith:
Abu Sa`id Al Khudry narrated that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Do not befriend but a believer and let only pious people eat your food."
The fifth Hadith:
Abu Dharr said: O Messenger of Allah! A man loves some people, but he cannot do work like their work. He replied: Yes, Abu Dharr, he will be with those whom you love. Abu Dharr then repeated it. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) also repeated it.
The sixth Hadith:
Abu Musa narrated: It was said to the Prophet (peace be upon him): "A man may love some people but he cannot catch up with their good deeds?" The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Everyone will be with those whom he loves."
The seventh Hadith:
Abu Musa narrated: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "The example of a good companion (who sits with you) in comparison with a bad one, is like that of the musk seller and the blacksmith's bellows (or furnace); from the first you would either buy musk or enjoy its good smell while the bellows would either burn your clothes or your house, or you get a bad nasty smell thereof."
The eighth Hadith:
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "The example of a good companion is like a perfume dealer either you buy from him or you smell his good odor. And the example of a bad companion is like a blacksmith either you are burnt by his fire or at least you smell its smoke."
The ninth Hadith:
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "Loneliness is better than a bad companion, and a good companion is better than loneliness, saying good is better than silence and silence is better than saying evil."
The tenth Hadith:
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "The example of a good companion is like a perfume dealer if you do not buy from him, the odor will catch your clothes. And the example of a bad companion is like a blacksmith if your clothes are not burnt by his fire, you shall be harmed by his bad odor."
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