1. If the intention of fasting for the fast of Ramadhan is made at night, the fast will be valid. The intention was not made at night and even in the morning one decided not to fast on that day. The day progressed considerably and only thereafter the person realized that it is not good to leave out a fard duty and therefore made the intention of fasting - even then his fast will be valid. But if he has already consumed some food in the morning, he cannot make the intention of fasting.
2. If a person has not consumed any food or drink, then for the fasts of Ramadhan he can make the intention of fasting until one hour before mid- day.
3. For the fasts of Ramadhan, the following intention is sufficient: "I am fasting today". Alternatively, at night one could say: "Tomorrow I will fast". By making this intention, the fasts of Ramadhan will be valid. When making the intention, a person did not specify as to whether it is a fast of Ramadhan or a fard fast. Even then the fast will be valid.
4. In the month of Ramadhan, a person made the following intention: "Tomorrow I will keep a nafl fast and I will not keep the fast of Ramadhan. I will make qada of this Ramadhan fast at some other time." Even then, the Ramadhan fast will be considered and not the nafl fast.
5. A person had missed a few fasts of the previous Ramadhan. The whole year passed without his making qada of these missed fasts as yet. When the next Ramadhan commenced, he made the intention of making qada of those missed fasts. Even then, the fasts of this Ramadhan will be considered and the qada fasts will not be valid. He will have to keep those qada fasts after Ramadhan.
6. A person had taken a vow that if a certain work of his is fulfilled, he will keep one or two fasts for the pleasure of Allah. When the month of Ramadhan commenced, he made the intention of keeping those fasts which he had vowed to keep and not the fast of Ramadhan. Even then, the fast of Ramadhan will be considered and not that of the vowed fast. The vowed fast will have to be kept after Ramadhan. In short, if any other intention is made in the month of Ramadhan, the fast of Ramadhan will be considered. All other fasts will not be valid.
7. If the moon of Ramadhan is sighted on the 29th of Sha'ban, commence fasting the following morning. However, if it is not sighted or cannot be sighted because of clouds, do not fast the next morning as long as there is a doubt as to whether Ramadhan has commenced or not. Instead, complete the 30 days of Sha'ban and thereafter commence the fasts of Ramadhan.
8. Because of clouds, the moon was not sighted on the 29th of Sha'ban. Do not even keep a nafl fast the following day. However, if a person is in the habit of fasting on Mondays and Thursdays or any other specific day, and coincidentally that day falls on the 29th, then in such a case it will be preferable to keep this fast. Thereafter, if he receives the news of the sighting of the moon on the 29th, the fast of Ramadhan will be fulfilled with that very nafl fast. He does not have to make qada of it.
9. Because of clouds, the moon was not sighted on the 29th of Sha'ban. Do not eat or drink anything the following day until an hour before mid-day. If news of the sighting of the moon is received from somewhere, make the intention of fasting. If no news is received, one can commence eating and drinking.
10. The moon was not sighted on the 29th. Do not think that since tomorrow is not Ramadhan, let me keep my qada fast of the previous year, or let me keep the fast that I had vowed to keep. On such a day, it is also makruh to keep the qada, kaffarah, and nazr (vowed) fasts. No fast should be kept on that day. If a person keeps the qada or nazr fast, and later he receives the news of the sighting of the moon; even then the fast of Ramadhan will be considered. He will have to repeat the qada or nazr fast. If he does not receive any news of the sighting of the moon, the fast will be valid for whatever reason he had kept it (i.e. whether it be a qada or a nazr fast).
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