The situation of Abu Bakr on the day The Messenger of Allah (Allah's blessing and peace be upon him) died was (as rightly decisive) as а compass, which determined how we history would turn towards the man who would fill the space left by the death of The Messenger of Allah (Allah's blessing and peace be upon him).
That man who remained constantly firm while facing the catastrophic stroke which bewildered the Muslims, all the Muslims, the man who kept on his state of tranquility, calmness, and whole mindedness in such а way (as we mentioned above) in а situation, which might distract the mind of the wisest man, this man was the worthiest of all to become the leader (of all the Muslims).
But even, this was not alone the reason of selecting him (for such а position). There was, in addition to it, his past, with its heroism and noble deeds and traits. During the fatal illness of The Messenger of Allah (Allah’s blessing and peace be upon him), Abu Bakr was chosen by him to lead the people in prayer, saying: "Tell Abu Bakr to lead the prayers with the people."
It is true that A'ishah tried to have him cancel that (order) saying: "Abu Bakr is а smooth-hearted man, and if he stood up in your position (as the leader of the prayers), he could not help weeping. So, you'd better ask Umar to lead the prayer with the people." When The Prophet was asked to cancel his order, he became angry and issued the same order twice: "Tell Abu Bakr to lead the prayers with the people."
Accordingly, Abu Bakr complied with the order of The Messenger of Allah (Allah’s blessing and peace be upon him). Perhaps he knew or did not know that at this very moment (he was given the order of The Prophet), he, in fact, received the flag from The Messenger of Allah (Allah’s blessing and peace be upon him), in order to carry it after him.
Following the death of The Messenger of Allah (Allah’s blessing and peace be upon him), Abu Bakr was taken by surprise because of а certain event, of which he never had thought before. It was the event of the Shed, which appeared as а commencement of dangerous evil. But, at the same time, it came to а happy and pleasant end, after Abu Bakr had been selected as caliph.
Whenever we go through the history of Abu Bakr, we would find that he had no desire at all for ru1ing or for becoming а caliph. He was as Umar in abstaining from having any position in this world. Moreover, Umar in his refraining from having any kind of authority over the people, was following the example of Abu Bakr, as well as treading in his steps.
The day of the Shed came so that his (Abu Bakr's) faith should pass through а terrifying trial. This man, who preferred to live as а shadow person (far from the lights of fame), unless it was necessary for him (to do the opposite), the man who used to be so much pleased that no eye wou1d fall on him (in admiration and appreciation for him), though he might be, at that time, on the top, this shy amiable repenting man was doomed to be established on the top of the events suddenly, not out of desire for that, but in response to the consequences of his faith, and the responsibilities of his religion.
Following the death of The Messenger of Allah (Allah’s blessing and peace be upon him), а lot of people from the Ansar gathered in the shed of Banu Sa'idah, in order to give the pledge of allegiance to Sa'd Ibn Ubadah as caliph. When Abu Bakr learnt of that, he went in the company of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab and Abu Ubaidah Ibn Al-Jarrah to the shed.
Indeed, Abu Bakr was in а hurry, not for sparing the caliphate for himself, but with the intention to stop the affliction on one hand, and to cure the tendency of sectarianism on the other hand, since there stood some people (from both the Ansar and the Emigrants) saying: "О community of Ansar!" "О community of Emigrants!". Furthermore, he intended to follow with the Muslims the best way to choose the caliph who would have the capabi1ity of filling the space left by The Messenger of Allah (Allah’s blessing and peace be upon him).
Abu Bakr faced the gathering people very deliberately. Their words were scattering, flying in all directions like bullets. There were some people from among the Ansar, who incited the Ansar powerfully and flamingly to stick to the matter of caliphate. On the other party, there were some Emigrants, who rose their voice loudly, rejecting such а desire of this group of the Ansar.
The people mostly lost their minds because of the death of The Messenger of Allah (Allah’s blessing and peace be upon him). When they thought of the matter of ruling, while still being in the atmosphere of this calamity, they were troubled, and went on dispute. The proof that this was not authentic in them as well as in their faith was their coming quickly to their senses, and their unanimous agreement on selecting as caliph this forbearing repenting man.
It is true that Abu Bakr would give preference to the Emigrants in regard to the matter of ruling. But, this is not because of their being Emigrants, belonging to the tribe of Quraish, but because the Migration conferred upon them the privilege of preceding (the Ansar) to embrace Islam. 'The Migration put an end to the stage of difficulty, during which they were vulnerable to (the torment of) Quraish, with all power it had so that they might be turned away from their religion. But this made their faith much stronger and more constant.
This was the measure by which Abu Bakr used to evaluate the people. He seemed to have derived it from the Book of Allah, when He Almighty said: "The earlier precedents (to embrace Islam) from the Emigrants (Muhajirs) and the Аnsаг."
Moreover, he would give preference to the Emigrants in regard to the matter of ruling in view of the fact that those who sought for it from amongst the Ansar were eager to have something which 'The Messenger of Allah (Allah’s blessing and peace be upon him) usually rejected to give to anyone who demanded it devotedly, i.e. the matter of ruling.
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