A more general expression may be joined to a more specific one, as indicated in the following verse. Allah says: “When he turns his back, his aim everywhere is to spread corruption throughout the earth and destroy crops and cattle. But Allah loves not corruption.” (Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:205). In this verse it is said that the phrase “to spread corruption throughout the earth,” implies unbelief as well as wrong [wherein both interpretations are true].
Allah says: “That Home of the Hereafter [Paradise], We shall assign to those who rebel not against the truth nor spread corruption with pride and oppression in the land ...” (Surah Al-Qasas, 28:83); and “Indeed, Pharaoh exalted himself in the land and divided its people into sects, weakening each group among them, killing their sons and letting their females live. Indeed, he was one of the most corrupt ones” (Surah Al-Qasas, 28:4).
Allah also says: “On this account: We ordained for the Children of Israel that if anyone slew a person—unless it be for murder or for spreading corruption in the land—it would be as if he slew the whole people ...” (Surah Al-Ma’idah, 5:32).
Thus, slaying a person is implied in corruption. The right to take revenge for the slain person is for the guardian of the victim. Yet during the time of the Wars of Apostasy, fighting, and fornication the right to take revenge was for all the people. For this reason it was said that this right is for Allah, and for this reason no one is to be excused because it spread corruption at large.
Allah says: “The recompense of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and spread corruption through the land is only that they shall be killed or crucified or their hands and their feet be cut off on the opposite sides...” (Surah Al-Ma’idah, 5: 33).
It is said that the reason for the revelation of this verse is because the ‘Araniyun  are those who apostatized, rebelled, killed, and took property back from the Muslims [at the time of the first Caliph, Abu Bakr]. Some say that the cause of the revelation of this verse was that some people made a covenant, then they broke it and started to fight back. Others say that this verse was revealed because of the polytheists, since it is connected with the people of the apostasy and those who broke their covenant and started to fight back. However, the majority of the pious ancestors and the later Muslims believe that this verse dealt with highway robbers from among the Muslims. In fact, this verse refers to all of the above.
Similarly, in many verses of the Qur’an, the terms salah, righteousness, and islah, doing good, are associated with the term Iman. For example, Allah says: “Indeed, those who believe and do deeds of righteousness...” (Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:277); and “... Those who believe and do good upon them shall have no fear, nor shall they grieve.” (Surah Al-An’am, 6:48).
It is well known that Iman is the most righteous deed and the best deed of righteousness. This is indicated by the saying of the Prophet [recorded in al-Sahih] by those who asked him: “Oh, Messenger of Allah, which of all deeds is the best?” The Messenger replied: “Belief in Allah is the best deed.”
Allah says: “And indeed, I am Forgiving to him who repents, believes and does righteous deeds, and then remains constant in doing so” (Surah Ta-Ha, 20:82); and “Accepts those who repent and believe and work righteousness. Such will enter Paradise . . .” (Surah Maryam,19:60); and “Accepts those who repent and believe and do righteous deeds, for such persons, Allah will change their sins into good deeds ...” (Surah Al-Furqan, 25:7 0) .
And concerning qadhf, false accusation, Allah says: “Accept those who repent after that and do righteous deeds. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful” (Surah Al-‘Imran, 3:89). And concerning the thief, Allah says: “But whosoever repents after his wrong and does righteous deeds then indeed, Allah will pardon him ...” (Surah Al-Ma’idah, 5:39); and “And the two persons [a man and a woman] among you who commit sexual intercourse [illegally], punish them both. And if they repent and do righteous good deeds, leave them alone...” (Surah An-Nisa’, 4:16).
The legal Muslim scholars, in one of their verdicts, stipulated a condition in accepting of the testimony of the one who has made false accusation that he has to show good conduct for approximately one year. This is in accordance with the case that ‘Umar [Ibn al-Khattab] applied on Subayyigh Ibn ‘Asal, whom he made wait for a year before restoring his status of good conduct. Following what ‘Umar [Ibn al-Khattab] did with Subayyigh Ibn ‘Asal, Ahmad [Ibn Hanbal] used the same analogy with the case of the one who is calling for bid'ah, innovation, that he must also wait for a year to restore his status of good conduct.
 These people are attributed to the tribe of 'Araynah. This tribe embraced Islam after the death of the Prophet (Peace be upon him), then they rejected Islam and joined the Apostates.
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