The third caliph, `Uthman ibn `Affan (1)
Sheikh `Abdul-`Aziz Ibn `Abdur-Rahman Al Shathry
The third caliph, `Uthman ibn `Affan (24 - 35 AH)
His name and lineage:
He is `Uthman ibn `Affan ibn Abu Al `As ibn Umayyah ibn `Abd Shams ibn `Abd Manaf ibn Qusay ibn Kilab ibn Murrah ibn Ka`b ibn Lu`ay ibn Ghalib, the Qurashi, from Banu Umayyah, the emir of the believers (may Allah be pleased with him).
He was surnamed by Abu `Abdullah and Abu layla. His mother was Arwa bint Kiris ibn Rabi`ah ibn Habib, who embraced Islam and died during the caliphate of her son `Uthman.
He was surnamed by Dhun-Nurayn because he married two of the Prophet's daughters: Ruqayyah who died after the great Battle of Badrthen married her sister Um Kulthum who died later. It was reported that the Messenger of Allah said: If I had a third one, I would have given her to you in marriage. His birth: He was born 6 years after the year of the Elephant according to the correct view. His Islam: He embraced Islam early at the hand of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq before going to Dar Al Arqam. He was from the first forerunners [in the faith], migrated twice, and participated in all battles except the Battle of Badr where he was nursing his wife Ruqayyah and the Messenger (peace be upon him) gave him a share from the booty.
His structural qualities:
Biographers mentioned that he was neither tall nor short, handsome, of soft skin, of great beard, dark, and hairy. His traits:
He (may Allah be pleased with him) was of good-manner, very shy, high-ranked, well-reared, supplicates a lot, of sincere heart, very God-fearing, and repentant. It was authentically reported from the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) that he said: "The most sincere of my nation showing modesty is `Uthman ibn Affan."
How did `Uthman become a caliphate:
Al Bukhari reported in his Sahih on the authority of Al Miswar ibn Makhramah: "The group of people whom `Umar had selected as candidates for the Caliphate gathered and consulted each other. `Abdur-Rahman said to them: I am not going to compete with you in this matter, but if you wish, I would select for you a caliph from among you. So all of them agreed to let `Abdur-Rahman decide the case. So when the candidates placed the case in the hands of `Abdur-Rahman, the people went towards him and nobody followed the rest of the group nor obeyed any after him. So the people followed `Abdur-Rahman and consulted him all those nights till there came the night we gave the oath of allegiance to `Uthman. Al Miswar (ibn Makhramah) added: `Abdur-Rahman called on me after a portion of the night had passed and knocked on my door till I got up, and he said to me: I see you have been sleeping! By Allah, during the last three nights I have not slept enough. Go and call Az-Zubayr and Sa`d. So I called them for him and he consulted them and then called me saying: Call `Ali for me. I called `Ali and he held a private talk with him till very late at night, and then `Al, got up to leave having had much hope (to be chosen as a Caliph) but `Abdur-Rahman was afraid of something concerning `Ali. `Abdur-Rahman then said to me: Call `Uthman for me. I called him and he kept on speaking to him privately till the Meuzzin put an end to their talk by announcing the Adhan for the Fajr Salah. When the people finished their morning prayer and that (six men) group gathered near the pulpit, `Abdur-Rahman sent for all the Muhajirin (emigrants) and the Ansar present there and sent for the army chief who had performed the Hajj with `Umar that year. When all of them had gathered, `Abdur-Rahman said:None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and added: Now then, O `Ali, I have looked at the people's tendencies and noticed that they do not consider anybody equal to `Uthman, so you should not incur blame (by disagreeing). Then `Abdur-Rahman said (to `Uthman), I gave the oath of allegiance to you on condition that you will follow Allah's Laws and the traditions of Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) and the traditions of the two Caliphs after him. So, `Abdur-Rahman gave the oath of allegiance to him, and so did the people including the Muhajirin (emigrants) and the Ansar and the chiefs of the army staff and all the Muslims ." He started his caliphate in the year 24 AH, in the month of Muharram.
Some of the virtues of `Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him):
`Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him), the emir of the believers had many virtues, from which we mention:
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said when he sought permission to enter on the day of the well of Urays: "Give him permission to enter and give him glad tidings with Paradise for an adversity that befalls on him." Thereupon, he (may Allah be pleased with him) said: "Allah is the source of help."
At-Tirmidhy reported on the authority of Al Harth ibn `Abdur-Rahman from Talhah who said: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "Every Prophet has a companionand my companion in Paradise is `Uthman ibn `Affan."
It was reported that `Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) said: `Uthman is the keenest of us to maintain the ties of kinship.
Thus `A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said when she heard about his slaughter, She said: They killed him while he was the keenest to maintain the ties of kinship and the most God-Fearing.
Abu Khaythamah reported from the way of Ad-Dahhak on the authority of An-Nazzal ibn Saburah who said: We said to `Ali ibn Abu Talib: Tell us about `Uthman! He said: He was called Dhun-Nurayn in the Highest Assembly of angels. It was reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said when he `Uthman prepared the army of hardship: There is no harm on `Uthman in any action he does after today.
It was reported when Az-Zubayr ibn Al `Awwam (may Allah be pleased with him) heard the killing of `Uthman, he said: Indeed, to Allah we belong and indeed to Him we shall return.
Then he invoked Allah to bestow mercy on him and said: Perish he who killed him!
Al Bukhari reported in his book At-Tarikh: Mubarak ibn Fadalah narrated to us: I heard Al Hasan Al Basry saying: I lived in the time of `Uthman when they hated them. You could rarely find a day without people splitting plenty of goodness: it was said to them: O Muslims, Go to get your rewards, and they get it in plenty. Then it was said to them: Go to get your sustenance, go to get butter, honey, and plenty of food, and they went to get it.
It was reported from the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) that he said about `Uthman when he prepared the army of hardship: O Allah, be pleased with `Uthman for I am pleased with him.
It was reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) was lying in the bed in my apartment with his thigh or his shank uncovered that Abu Bakr sought permission to get in. It was given to him and he conversed in the same very state (the Prophet's thigh or shank uncovered). Then `Umar sought permission for getting in and it was given to him and he conversed in that very state. Then `Uthman sought permission for getting in; Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) sat down and he set right his clothes. Mubammad (one of the narrators) said: I do not say that it happened on the same day. He (`Uthman) then entered and conversed and as he went out, `A'ishah said: Abu Bakr entered aind you did not stir and did not observe much care (in arranging your clothes), then `Umar entered and you did not stir and did not arrange your clothes, then `Uthman entered and you got up and set your clothes right, thereupon he said: Should I not show modesty to one whom even the Angels show modesty. [Reported by Al Bukhari in his Sahih and Ahmad in his Musnad].
`Uthman was the ambassador between the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and the polytheists of Makkah in the `Umrah of Al Hudaybiyah when they prevented the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) from completing his `Umrah. So, he sent to them informing that he shall come to perform `Umrah, but Quraysh refused. When he was late, Muslims thought that he was killed, thereupon the Prophet (peace be upon him) intended to fight Quraysh, so he took the pledge from the Companions under the tree to fight, and he shaked hands with himself saying: This is the homage of `Uthman; and that was later called the Pledge of Ridwan (Pleasure).
Examples of `Uthman's efforts in the cause of Allah:
`Uthman sacrificed himself and his money for the sake of Allah, where he spent most of his money for raising the banner of Islam and breaking the banner of disbelief and oppression.
Al Bukhari reported in his Sahih that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "Whoever equipes the hardship army shall enter Paradise," then `Uthman prepared it. It was reported that he equipped the army with 300 camels with their saddles and 10.000 dinars or dirhams.
It was reported in Sahih Al Bukhari that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "Who would buy the well of Rumah and he shall enter Paradise? Then `Uthman bought it for 35.000 dirhams and gave it in charity for Muslims.
When the Prophet's Masjid became tight with Muslims, he bought the surrounding land to expand the Masjid.
He spent alot for the sake of Allah, may Allah be pleased with `Uthman.
It was reported that `Uthman (may ALlah be pleased with him) owed Talhah ibn `Ubaydullah with 50.000, one day Abu Talhah said to `Uthman: Your debt is ready to be rendered. `Uthman said to him: It is yours, O Talhah, as a help for your courtesy.
Examples of his worship and fearing Allah:
Muhammad ibn Sirin (may Allah bestow mercy on his soul) said: "`Uthman used to offer the supererogatory night Salah with one Ayah."
It was reported that `Abdullah ibn `Umar (may Alalh be pleased with him) said about Allah's Saying: "Is one who is obedient to Allah, prostrating himself or stand Ing (in prayer) during the hours of the night, fearing the Hereafter and hoping for the Mercy of his Lord (like one who disbelieves)?" [Surat Az-Zumar: 9]. He said: That is `Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him).
Ibn Majah reported: "When `Uthman stood by a grave, he wept so much that his beard would get wet. So, it was said to him" Paradise and the Fire are also mentioned but you do not weep, yet you weep here (why)? He said: "Surely, Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: 'The grave is the first stop of the several stops before the Hereafter, and deliverance from it means that after it is an easy sailing, but if one does not get deliverance from it then the following stages are more severe than it'." He also said: I have not seen a sight more frightening than the sight of the grave."
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