Diplomatic representation at the time
of the Messenger of Allah Peace be upon Him
Written by: Dr. Ahlam ABASSI
Translated by: Dr. Nabil BELMEKKI
We praise you, who clarified the paths of guidance to us, and removed from our insights the cloud of temptation, and we pray and greet the one whom you sent as a witness, evangelist and a warning, and a caller to God with his permission and a bright lamp, and on the companions who deserted the homelands seeking the grace of God and the supporters who won and sacrificed to the glory of religion.
The Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, established a sophisticated political system upon his reign - peace be upon him - which is called diplomatic representation in constitutional law, by sending missions and ambassadors, who represent Islam best, spreading his message and principles to the horizons in a manner marked by wisdom, good advice, sophistication and farsightedness, and this can be highlighted in a group of points:
1- His shrewdness, may blessings and peace be upon him, in choosing men:
The Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, used to have great insight in choosing men, and a great deal of knowledge of those with competencies from among his companions. And the skill in attracting people and choosing for the interest of kings and princes one who combines good appearance, eloquence and quick wit, and in the actions of sacrifice he chooses one who combines superior courage, strength of heart, and the ability to control feelings.
That is why the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, used Khalid bin Al-Walid on warfare since he became Muslim, and he said: ((Indeed, Khalid is a sword that God entrusted to the polytheists)) .
Regarding this, Sheikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah - may God have mercy on him - says:
Because - that is, Khalid bin Al-Walid - was more correct in this regard than others, and Abu Dharr, may God be pleased with him, was more correct than him in trust and honesty. However, the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said to him: ((O Abu Dhar, I see you weak, and I love for you have what I
love for myself, do not entrust yourself to two, and do not entrust the money of an orphan)).
The one who contemplates the hadith will find that the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, forbade Abu Dharr from governing because he saw him weak.
2- The role of diplomatic representation in calling to God:
Dr. Muhammad Al-Hazzat says: “Islam gives great importance to the issue of diplomatic representation, because it enables first: to serve the Islamic religious purposes to introduce the people to the Islamic call, the Islamic religion, and secondly: to support peaceful relations between different peoples to facilitate economic benefits, achieve social goals and confirm understanding Cooperation, and every nation benefits from the achievements and cultures of other nations that push the wheel of humanity towards progress and prosperity ”.
3- Sense of leadership and choosing the most appropriate time to spread the call:
This resurrection came after the empowerment and stability of the state of Islam and Muslims. “When the Messenger returned from the reconciliation of Al-Hudaybiyah and saw the speed of Islam for individuals and tribes, he found that the time had come to popularize the call to Islam outside the Arabian Peninsula, so he chose for this purpose his messengers from the Muslim merchants who had already deported to the countries whose kings wanted to join Islam and who would know their customs”.
The Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace, wrote and wrote books to each of:
• Hercules, the Great of the Romans, and was carried by Dihya bin Khalifa al-Kalbi.
• The book of the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace, to Al-Harith bin Abi Shahr Al-Ghassani, who was a ruler of Damascus and was carried by Shuja bin Wahb Al-Asadi.
• The book of the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace, to Kusra, the great Persians, and he sent the book with Abdullah bin Hudhafa al-Sahami.
• His book, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, to al-Muqawas, the Great of the Romans, and he sent it with Hatib bin Abi Balata, may God be pleased with him.
• The book of the Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, to the Negus (the king of Abyssinia was blessed with him). The book was carried by Amr bin Umayya al-Dhahri.
• The book of the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace, to Hudha Bin Ali Al-Hanafi, the owner of Al-Yamamah, and he sent the book with Salit bin Amr Al-Ameri.
The book of the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace, to al-Mundhir bin Sawai al-Tamimi, the owner of Bahrain, and he sent this book with Al-Alaa bin Al-Hadrami, may God be pleased with him.
• The Book of the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace, to the two kings of Oman - a town in Yemen on the coast of the Sea of Yemen and India in eastern Hajar - the Messenger of God sent his book with Amr bin Al-Aas .
The one who looks at these books and what they contain will find all of them pouring into one stream, which is the call to Islam and the entry into it in groups, and rejecting other tyrants, and among that what the Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, wrote to al-Muqawqis, the Great Copt, which came in it: ((In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful, from the servant of God and His Messenger to al-Muqawqis, the Great Copt. In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate, from Muhammad, the slave of Allah and His Messenger, al-Muqawqis, the Great Copt. Peace be upon the one who follows guidance. I call you to Islam. If you become Muslim, you will be safe and Allah will double your reward. If you turn away, then you incur the wrong action of your subjects. "O People of the Book! Come to a proposition which is the same for us and you (to His words) Bear witness that we are Muslims. ([Al-Imran: 64])) .
4- Diplomatic Immunity for Messengers
The Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, gave his messengers through these books a set of rights for the benefit of his messengers to kings and princes across various countries, which are what legal scholars call personal immunity, and it is “more universal in terms of acceptance, meaning
the sanctity of the person, his things, his political portfolios and the institution of accreditation which stipulates the prohibition of any exposure or assault to that, and this immunity is recognized by Islam in terms of safety.
Among that is what came in his book, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, to al-Mundhir bin Sawai al-Tamimi, who said: ((As for now, I remind you of God - the Almighty - for he who advises is advising himself, and he who obeys my messengers and follows their command has obeyed me, and whoever advises them has advised Me, and my messengers have commended you well).
His mission, may God bless him and grant him peace, to the horizons, which was calling for the kings and princes of the earth to the one God’s religion. It was considered a turning point in the foreign policy of the Prophet’s state, so its affair was magnified, and it had a religious and political status among countries, before the conquest of Mecca, and this policy paved the way for the unification of the Messenger, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, for the rest of the Arab countries in the year of delegations .
5 – The seal of the Prophet may God bless him and grant him peace:
Also, one of the effects of this rational policy of writing letters to the kings and princes of the earth of different cultures and parts of the world, and in order for this book to have that procedural power or what is termed (the authority to sign), the Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, took a seal with which all are sealed.
6- Taking into account the status of the envoy and respecting his culture:
The Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, was told when he wanted to send his books to the kings inviting them to Islam: They do not read the book unless it is sealed.So he, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, took a silver ring, and its inscription was three inscriptions, line (Muhammad), line (Messenger), line (God), and the lines are read from bottom to top, so “Muhammad” is the last of the lines, and “Messenger” in the middle, And “God” is above, and the writing was upside down so that it would be flat if it was sealed with it, so that ring was in his hand, may God bless him and grant him peace, then in the hand of Abu Bakr, then in the hand of Umar, then in the hand of Uthman, may God be pleased with them, until it fell into the well of
Ares In the year in which Othman, may God be pleased with him, was killed .
These, then, are some of the features of the legitimate policy, which were expressed in the biography of the Prophet, peace be upon him, which translates that sophistication, wisdom, and narration, farsightedness, and the sublime leadership's mind, which the Messenger of God represented in many situations, from his good dealings with those who contradict him in belief. Whether inside or outside the Islamic State, and his dealings with the issues of the state and its citizens were fair, equal and fair, because there is no difference for him, peace be upon him, between an Arab and a non-Arab except by piety.
Islamic history book; By Al-Hamidi (6: 28).
It was included by Ahmad on the Virtues on the authority of Qais (2: 715) a saheeh hadeeth, which Al-Albani mentioned in al-Sahih No. (1237) with the wording ((Yes Abdullah Khalid Saif from the Swords of God)).
It was included by Muslim in the Book of the Emirate Hadith No. 1826 in the chapter on Hatred of the Emirate Unnecessarily (3: 1457).
The legal policy of reforming the shepherd and the parish; Ibn Taymiyyah (pp. 26, 27).
Introduction to the study of Islamic public law; For Dr. Muhammad Al-Hazzat (p .: 221).
Muhammad is the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace; By Sheikh Muhammad Reda (p .: 262).
The same reference (pp. 264-276), with a disposition, and it includes pictures of the books that the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace, sent to these kings and princes in detail.
Muhammad, the Messenger of God, Sheikh Muhammad Ridha (269).
Muhammad is the Messenger of God, Sheikh Muhammad Reda (p. 276).
Biography of the Prophet; For Dr. Muhammad Al-Sallabi (p .: 444).
Muhammad is the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace; By Sheikh Muhammad Reda (pp. 262, 263).
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