How did the Prophet (peace be upon him) offer Salah?
From the book of Tamam Al Minnah (2)
The description of prostration:
A person should place these organs on the ground, closing between his fingers and directing them to the Qiblah next to his shoulders. As for his feet fingers, they should be in the direction of the Qiblah and closing between his feet, raising his elbows off the ground and setting them apart from his sides.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to say in his bowing down "Subhana Rabbiya Al `Azhim [Glory be to my Lord, the Great]" and say in his prostration "Subhana Rabbiya Al `Ala [Glory be to my Lord, the Most High];" he used also to say in bowing down and prostration "Subbuhun Quddusun, Rabbil-Mala'ikati War-Ruh [Glory be to You, You are the Lord of angels and the soul]."
17- Then a person pronounces Takbir, sits between the two prostrations, and feels comfort. Let it be known that feeling comfort is obligatory, and the description of this sitting is as follows: Sitting on his left foot and bending the right leg with the feet fingers heading to the direction of the Qiblah. The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to say between the two prostrations "Rabighfir Li, Rabighfir Li [O Allah, forgive me]."
18- Then a person should pronounce Takbir to prostrate again and do as he did in the first prostration.
19- Then a person should raise his head from prostration pronouncing Takbir and sit a light sitting before standing up for the second Rak`ah: This sitting is called "the rest sitting" which is desirable. Then a person should stand up leaning on his hands and pronouncing Takbir.
20- Then he should stand for the second Rak`ah and do as he did in the first Rak`ah.
21- When a person offers two Rak`ahs, he should sit down for the first Tashah-hud, and the description of this Tashah-hud is to sit as he does in the sitting between the two prostrations and places his hands as follows:
A- As for the fingers of the left hand, they should be set apart on the thigh or on the knees.
B- As for the fingers of the right hand, they have more than one position, of the most famous are the following:
1- The first position is: To close his entire hand except the forefinger.
2- The second position is: To close the pinkie and the ring finger, make a circle by touching the middle finger with the thumb, and point with the forefinger.
It is noted that a person should place his right hand on the right thigh.
* Let it be known that it is permissible to move the forefinger during Tashah-hud as it is permissible to keep it still, but it is better to move it. Moving the finger should be from the beginning of Tashah-hud until the end. It is noted that direction of the forefinger should be toward the Qiblah and his sight should follow it. It is also noted that it is not permissible to point with the two forefingers [the right and left], but the pointing should be with the right forefinger only.
22- Then a person should say Tashah-hud by one of the famous forms. One of the most famous and the correct form is the Tashah-hud of Ibn Mas`ud (may Allah be pleased with him) who reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him) that he said: "At-Tahiyyatu Lillahi Was-Salawatu Wat-Tiyyibat, As-Salam `Alayka Ayyuha An-Nabiyyu Warahmatullah Wabarakatuh, As-Salam `Alayna Wa`ala `Ibadillah As-Salihin Ashhadu Alla Ilaha Illa Allah Wa Ashhadu Anna Muhmmadan `Abduhu Warasuluh." Abu Musa Al Ash`ary and Ibn `Umar added: "Wahdahu La Sharika Lah" after his saying: "Ashhadu Alla Ilaha Illa Allah."
* Let it be known that it is permissible to say "As-Salamu `Ala An-Nabiy" as it is permissible to say "As-Salamu `Alayka Ayyuha An-Nabiy," however the more correct is to say "As-Salamu `Ala An-Nabiy" because the Companions did so after the death of the Prophet (peace be upon him).
23- Then a person should send peace and blessings to the Prophet (peace be upon him) after the first Tashah-hud: Ash-Shafi`y (may Allah bestow mercy on his soul) adopted the view that it is permissible to send peace and blessings to the Prophet (peace be upon him) after the first Tashah-hud because it is part of the Sunnah, but the majority of scholars said: It is not permissible. However, the view of Ash-Shafi`y is more correct.
There are many forms of sending peace and blessings to the Prophet (peace be upon him), of the most famous are:
1- Allahumma Sally `Ala Muhammadin Wa`ala 'Ali Muhammad Kama Sallayta `Ala 'Ali Ibrahim, Wabarik `Ala Muhammadin Wa`ala 'Ali Muhammadin Kama Barakta `Ala 'Ali Ibrahim Fil `Alamin Innaka Hamidun Majid.
2- Allahumma Sally `Ala Muhammadin Wa`ala 'Ali Muhammad Kama Sallayta `Ala Ibrahim Wa`ala Ali Ibrahim, Innaka Hamidun Majid. Allahumma Barik `Ala Muhammadin Wa`ala 'Ali Muhammadin Kama Barakta `Ala Ibrahima Wa`ala 'Ali Ibrahim Fil `Alamin Innaka Hamidun Majid.
24- Then a person should stand for the third Rak`ah pronouncing Takbir and raising his hands as he did in Takbirat-ul-Ihram:
* Let it be known that it is permissible to pronounce Takbir before standing to the third Rak`ah as it is permissible to pronounce it after standing. It is permissible to raise the hands before standing for the third Rak`ah or after.
According to this, the positions of raising the hands during Salah are:
A- Upon Takbirat-ul-Ihram.
B- Upon bowing down.
C- Upon raising from bowing down.
D- Upon standing after the first Tashah-hud.
25- When a person finishes the third Rak`ah in the Maghrib Salah or the fourth in the four-Rak`ah Salah, a person should sit Mutawarrik [sit on his thigh].
This sitting is one of the pillars of Salah and this sitting is made for the Salah which has more than one Tashah-hud, so Tawarruk is made in the final Tashah-hud. However, if the Salah is composed of two Rak`ahs, the sitting should be as mentioned, but this sitting has more than one description, of which are:
The first form is to bend the left leg, place his right leg on it and let the left leg comes out form the right [like a cross] and sits on the ground without sitting on his foot.
The second form is to bend both his legs in the right direction and sit on the ground.
* As for the position of the hands during the final Tashah-hud, it will be as the first Tashah-hud.
It should be noted that the description of Tawarruk in the final Tashah-hud is desirable, so a person may do it as much as he can according to the Sunnah, but if he cannot do it, there will be no harm upon him.
26- Then a person should say Tashah-hud as mentioned.
27- Then he should send peace and blessing to the Prophet (peace be upon him) by one of the previous forms reported in the first Tashah-hud.
28- Then he should seek refuge with Allah against four things: From the torment of Hell, the torment of the Grave, the trial of life and death, and the evil of the Anti-Christ.
29- Then a person should finish Salah by Salam which is one of the pillars of Salah. The obligatory Salam is the first only but the second on the left is desirable.
The description of Salam:
It is permissible to finish Salah with two Salams: One at the right and one at the left. It is permissible to make one Salam only as the Prophet (peace be upon him) did by saying: As-Salamu `Alaykum warahmatullah (May Allah's Peace and Mercy be upon you).
It is noted that when a Musalli finishes Salah, his hands should remain on his thighs, so he should not point with them to the right or left with Salam. Let it be known that it is desirable for the Ma`mum not to start Salah until the imam finishes his Salam, but it is permissible for him to start Salam after the imam finishes the first Salam. Likewise, it is desirable for the one who missed one or more Rak`ahs not to stand up for making up for the missed Rak`ahs before the imam finishes the two Salams. It is permissible for him to stand after the imam finishes his first Salam, but if he stands up before the Salam of the imam, his Salah is nullified.
 Abridged from Tamam Al Minnah Fi Fiqh Al Kitab wa Sahih As-Sunnah of Dr. `Adel Al `Azzazy, for more details.
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