The biography of Sa`d ibn Abu Waqqas, his name , his lineage , nickname, and his Islam .
His name and lineage :
He is Sa`d ibn Malik ibn Wahib ibn `Abd Manaf ibn Zuhrah ibn Kilab Al Qurashy Az-Zuhry .
His nickname : Abu Ishaq .
His Islam :
He embraced Islam at the hand of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq , and He was one of the ten people who were given glad tiding with Paradise . He was the last to die from the Companions. He was one of the six people chosen for Shura and the seventh person to embrace Islam. His invocations were answered because the Prophet (peace be upon him) invoked Allah for him saying: "O Allah, make his arrow correct and answer his invocations."
He was the Prophet maternal uncle and was the first to shoot arrows in the cause of Allah. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "Throw with arrow, may my father and mother be a ransom for you."
The mother of Sa`d was Himnah bint Sufyan ibn Umayyah ibn `Abd Shams.
His moral qualities:
Sa`d (may Allah be pleased with him) was so reasonable, far-sighted, pure-handed and tongue, grateful to his family, loyal to his friends, more beloved to people, and the most kind of all.
His physical descriptions:
Sa`d (may Allah be pleased with him) was short, fat, tall, and hairy who used to anoint his hair in black.
It was reported that when he embraced Islam and his mother knew about his Islam, she was mad at him and said: I shall not eat or drink until you leave this religion, and if I die in this case, you shall be disgraced by your action. He replied: O mother, do not do it because I shall never leave my religion. She remained three days without food or drink, but when she knew his seriousness, she ate and drank. Therefore, Allah revealed: "But if they (both) strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not ." ]Surat Luqman: 15] 
His horsemanship and bravery:
Sa`d ibn Malik ibn Abu Waqqas (may Allah be pleased with him) was one of brave knights who used to guard the Prophet (peace be upon him) and stuck to him during his travel and staying.
It was reported with a good chain of transmission from Ibn Ishaq who said: The strongest Companions were four: `Umar ibn Al Khattab, Ali ibn Abu Talib, Az-Zubayr ibn Al `Awwam, and Sa`d ibn Abu Waqqas (may Allah be pleased with them).
Imam Muslim reported in his Sahih on the authority of `A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) that one night the Prophet (peace be upon him) was unable to sleep and said: "Would that a righteous man from my companions guarded me tonight." Suddenly we heard the clatter of arms, whereupon the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Who is it?" It was said: "I am Sa`d, O Allah's Messenger! I have come to guard you." The Prophet (peace be upon him) invoked Allah for him then Allah revealed : "And Allah protects you from people ." [Surat Al Ma'idah: 67]. [Reported by Al Bukhari in his Sahih].
It was reported that Sa`d ibn Abu Waqqas (may Allah be pleased with him) was the first to shed blood in Islam for the sake of Allah because Muslims used to go to the valleys of Makkah to perform Salah secretly before migration. When Sa`d was among his companions, some people from the polytheists of Makkah saw them praying and started fight with them. Thereupon, Sa`d hit a man of them with the bone of a camel and broke his head.
In the battle of Badr, Sa`d did well and fought as if he was seeking martyrdom. `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud (may Allah be pleased with him) said: Sa`d ibn Abu Waqqas, `Ammar ibn Yasir, and I participated in the booty of Badr battle. `Ammar and I did not get anything but Sa`d brought two captives. Sa`d fought for the sake of Allah with his sword, money, tongue, and invocation.
It was reported in Musnad Imam Ahmad about Sa`d (may Allah be pleased with him) that he said: "I saw two men: One at the right hand of the Prophet and the second was at the left hand in the battle of Uhud who were wearing white clothes and fighting strongly like no example I saw."
We have mentioned that the invocations of Sa`d ibn Abu Waqqas (may Allah be pleased with him) were answered, so he rarely invoked Allah with something without being answered. It was reported that he said: "O Messenger of Allah, invoke Allah to make my invocations answered. Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah said: O Sa`d, eat lawfully and your invocations shall be answered."
The Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "O Allah, make his invocations answered, make his arrow hit rightly, and make him beloved to Your Servants."
It was reported that when `Umar ibn Al Khattab appointed Sa`d an emir to Kufa in Iraq, some people rebelled against him and complained about him to `Umar. So, `Umar sent Muhammad ibn Maslamah. When Muhammad arrived at Kufa, he asked the tribes and the people about him. All the people praised him until he entered the masjid of Banu `Abs. One of the people whose name was Abu Sa`dah stood up and said: As for Sa`d, he does not judge justly between us and does not participate in Jihad. Thereupon, Sa`d (may Allah be pleased with him) stood and invoked Allah: O Allah, if this man has spoken falsely about me, make him blind, prolong his lifetime, make him live long in poverty, and expose him to seditions .
Thereafter, the man became blind, lived in poverty, lived long, and used to touch slave girls in streets. He was asked about that, he answered: I was inflicted by the call of the pious man Sa`d ibn Abu Waqqas. As for other oppressors of Kufa, he supplicated Allah against them, and everyone of them was inflicted in his body and money. We seek refuge in Allah against oppression and the invocation of the oppressed .
It was reported that Sa`d (may Allah be pleased with him) heard a man insulting Az-Zubayr ibn Al `Awwam, `Uthman, and Ali ibn Abu Talib (may Allah be pleased with him). He said to him: O you, do not insult the Companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) for they are my brothers. Then he performed Salah and said: O Allah, for the sake of Your Pious Servants, make him a bad example to people. Allah commanded a camel to place him under its feet until it killed him while people were watching. People said: Good for you, O Abu Ishaq, Allah responded to your supplication in this regard.
A truthful invocation:
It was reported that Ishaq ibn Sa`d ibn Abu Waqqas reported from his father that he said: `Abdullah ibn Jahsh and I gathered on the day of Uhud but we sat aside. Thereupon, `Abdullah ibn Jahsh said: O Sa`d, won't you come to supplicate Allah? He said: Sa`d started and said: O Lord, when we meet the enemy tomorrow, let me meet a strong man to fight and kill for Your Sake. `Abdullah ibn Jahsh said Amen after his invocation .
Then `Abdullah ibn Jahsh (may Allah be pleased with him) invoked Allah and said: O Lord, when we meet the enemy tomorrow, let me meet a strong man to fight and cut my nose and ear for Your Sake. Then when I meet you and You ask me about it, I say: It was done for Your Sake, and You say: You have said the truth. Sa`d said: The invocation of `Abdullah was better than mine because I saw him after the battle while his nose and ear were cut .
Some good situation of Sa`d in the way of Allah:
It was reported that when `Umar ibn Al Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) assembled the Muslim army to invade Iraq, he made up his mind to lead the army himself but `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Awf and a group of the Companions advised him to choose another leader and he should stay in Medina. He asked them: Who should we choose? `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Awf said: O Emir of the Believers, I found him. `Umar asked? Who is he? `Abdur-Rahman said: He is the lion in its den, he is Sa`d ibn Malik ibn Abu Waqqas. Thereupon, `Umar summoned him and appointed him an emir to the army, and advised him with high moral values.
He kept on opening cities, a city after another, until the entire country of Iraq was opened for Islam at his hand, expelled all persians, seized Persia, opened Al Qadisiyyah and Gulawla', and he was the one who called Kufa with that name. He was appointed an emir in the time of `Umar and `Uthman, and praticipated in many battles and difficulties.
His asceticism in positions and worldly affairs:
When `Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him) was killed, seditions pervailed, and evil spread everywhere, Sa`d (may Allah be pleased with him) preferred seclusion in his palace at Al `Aqiq until he died.
It was reported that his son `Umar came to him in his palace and said: O father, are you staying here like bedouins while the people in Medina are sharing the kingdom. Sa`d said to him: Shut up, I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) saying: Indeed, Allah loves the person who is pious, rich, and away from people. [Reported by Muslim in his Sahih and Ahmad in his Musnad].
It was reported that Mu`awiyah (may Allah be pleased with him) wrote to him to join his army but he refused and said to his people: Do not tell me about what is happening to people until they choose a ruler.
It was reported that his nephew Hashim ibn `Utbah came to him and said: O uncle, you are more entitled to be a ruler, and we have 100.000 men who will stand with you.
Hammad ibn Salamah reported from Sammak from Mus`ab ibn Sa`d that he said: The head of my father was in my lap while he was in death agony then I cried. Thereupon, he lifted his head and said: What made you cry? I said: For your condition. He said: Do not cry, for Allah shall never torture me and I shall be from the Paradise dwellers. [Reported by ibn Sa`d in his book At-Tabaqat].
It was reported that when Um Salamah (may Allah be pleased with her) heard about the death of Sa`d, she cried and said: He was the remnant of Muhammad's Companions.
It was reported that he made a will that he should be enshrouded in a cloak made of wool and said: I encountered polytheists in the battle of Badr while wearing it and I hid it for this day. [Reported by Al Hakim and At-Tabarany in Al Mu`jam Al Kabir].
Sa`d died in 55 AH while he was several and seventy years old in his palace at Al `Aqiq which was ten miles away from Medina then he was carried on necks until people offered the funeral Salah at him in the Prophetic Masjid and the Prophet's wives offered Salah at him too.
May Allah be pleased with Sa`d and all the Prophet's Companions.
 Reported by Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and An-Nisa'y.
  Luqman: 14-15 .
 Al Ma'idah: 67.
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