These are the bases of the moral law about which Jesus said: “Whosoever, therefore, shall break one of these commandments and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven, but whosoever shall do and teach them the same, shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven ( Matt. 5: 19). However, it will be an underestimation of Moses’ work if it is reduced to those elementary duties. If we extend our search in the Torah, we would find a few other scattered commandments (Exode, 22-23; Levitic, 19-25; Deuteronomy, 6) which concern the act of the heart as well as the exterior action and which predicted the Evangelical precepts.
Thou shalt not raise a false report (Ex. 23: 1)
Verily those who brought forth the slander (against ‘Aishah, the wife of the Prophet) are a group among you. Unto every man among them will be paid that which he had earned of the sin, and for him among them, who had the greater share therein, his will be a great torment.” (XXIV, 11); “Verily, those who like that (the crime of) illegal sexual intercourse should be propagated among those who believe, they will have a painful torment in this world and in the Hereafter.” (XXIV, 19); “O you who believe! Avoid much suspicion; indeed some suspicions are sins. And spy not, neither backbite one another.” (XLIX, 12)
Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil (Ex.23:2)
“... Help you one another in Al-Birr and At-Taqwâ (virtue, righteousness and piety); but do not help one another in sin and transgression.” (V, 2)
.. neither shalt thou countenance a poor man in his cause (Ex. 23:3)
“... be he rich or poor; Allâh is a Better Protector to both (than you). So follow not the lusts (of your hearts), lest you avoid justice.” (IV, 135).
..thou shalt surely help with him (Ex. 23:5)
“Let not the hatred of some people… lead you to transgression.” (V, 2).
But the stranger that dwelleth with you shall be unto you as one born among you (Lev. 19:34)
“...and do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, Al-Masâkîn (the poor), the neighbour who is near, the neighbour who is a stranger, the companion by your side, the wayfarer (you meet) and those (slaves) whom your right hands possess ..” (IV, 36)
Thou shalt open thine hand wide unto thy brother, to thy poor, and to thy needy, in thy land (Deut,15:11)
“And those in whose wealth there is recognised right. * For the beggar who asks, and for the unlucky who has lost his property and wealth, (and his means of living has been straitened)”. (LXX, 24-5).
Thou shalt neither vex a stranger nor oppress him (Ex. 22:21)
“... and do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, Al- Masâkîn (the poor), the neighbour who is near, the neigh-bour who is a stranger, the companion by your side, the wayfarer (you meet) and those (slaves) whom your right hands possess ...” (IV, 36)
Ye shall not afflict any widow, nor fatherless child (Ex. 22:22)
“They ask your legal instruction concerning women, say: Allâh instructs you about them, and about what is re- cited unto you in the Book concerning the orphan girls whom you give not the prescribed portions (as regards Mahr and inheritance) and yet you desire to marry, and (concerning) the children who are weak and oppressed, and that you stand firm for justice to orphans..” (IV, 127); “Therefore, treat not the orphan with oppression.”
Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgement (Lev. 19:15)
“And that when you judge between men, you judge with justice.” (IV, 58)
Keep thee far from a false matter (Ex. 23:7)
And among mankind is he who disputes concerning Allâh, without knowledge and follows every rebellious (disobedient to Allâh) Shaitan (Devil) (devoid of every kind of good). (XXII, 3); “And of mankind there is he whose speech may please you (O Muhammad) in his worldly life, and he calls Allâh to witness as to that which is in his heart, yet he is the most quarrel some of the opponents.” (II, 204); “And argue not on behalf of those who deceive themselves. Verily, Allâh does not like anyone who is betrayer, sinner. * They may hide (their crimes) from men, but they cannot hide (them) from Allâh; for He is with them (by His knowledge) when they plot by night in words that He does not approve. And Allâh ever encompasses what they do. (IV,107-8)
Thou shalt not avenge (Lev. 18:19)
“... who repress anger and who pardon men ...” (III,134)
Ye shall do no unrighteousness...in meteyard, in weight, or in measure (Lev. 19:35).
“Woe to Al-Mutaffifin (those who give less in measure and weight). * Those who, when they have to receive by measure from men, demand full measure, * And when they have to give by measure or weight to (other) men, give less than due.” (LXXXIII, 1-3).
Thou shalt not.. bear any grudge against the children of thy people (Lev. 19:18)
“And those who came after them say: “Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in Faith, and put not in our hearts any hatred against those who have believed.” (LIX, 10).
Ye shall be holy (Lev. 19:1)
It is not (possible) for any human being to whom Allâh has given the Book and Al-Hukm (the knowledge and understanding of the laws of religion) and Prophethood to say to the people: “Be my worshippers rather than Allâh's.” On the contrary (he would say): “Be you Rabbâniyyûn (learned men of religion who practise what they know and also preach others), because you are teaching the Book and you are studying it.” (III, 79); “Never stand you therein. Verily, the mosque whose foundation was laid from the first day on piety is more worthy that you stand therein (to pray). In it are men who love to clean and to purify themselves. And Allâh loves those who make themselves clean and pure [i.e. who clean their private parts with dust and water]” (IX, 108)
.. thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself (Lev. 19:18)
“And (it is also for) those who, before them, had homes (in Al-Madinah) and had adopted the Faith, love those who emigrate to them, and have no jealousy in their breasts for that which they have been given (from the booty of Banî An-Nadîr), and give them (emigrants) preference over them-selves even though they were in need of that. And whosoever is saved from his own covetousness, such are they who will be the successful.” (LIX, 9)
And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart (Deut. 6:5)
“... But those who believe love Allâh more (than any-thing else) ...” (II, 165)
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