Hajj is Fard (a duty necessary) on every Muslim, man or woman, who has reached the age of 13, puberty and who has means to do so. The person who performs it gets Thawab (recompense) for it, and he, who does not perform it (in spite of means) is Fasiq (a sinner) and he will be punished for it in the hereafter and he, who denies that it is a Fard, becomes Kafir (an infidel).
It is narrated by Ali that (sallAllahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said, “A person who has the provision for Hajj and has the conveyance that can take him to Baitullah (the House of Allah) and even then he does not perform Hajj, it makes no difference whether he dies a Jew or a Christian and this is because Allah saysthat Hajj of Baitullah is Fard on those who have the means to do so.” (Reported by Tirmidhi)
Those who do not perform Hajj are worth reprimanding while those who perform it without knowing the Arkan (ordinances of Shari’ah) and what they are supposed to do, also deserve the same. Everyone knows that nothing can be achieved without learning. How pitiable it is that they do not care a little to learn about Ibadah (acts of worship) that is Fard on them and is prescribed only once in their life time, and that they do nothing to embalm their hearts with the love of Allah and (sallAllahu ‘alaihi wa sallam).
It is narrated by Abu Hurayrah that (sallAllahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said, “The person who performed Hajj just to please Allah and abstained from lustful acts, wickedness and sins of all sorts, shall return from it pure and sinless as he was at the time of his birth”.
“Al-Hajjul Mabrur” is the Hajj during which a pilgrim neither commits any sin nor anything that is forbidden in the state of Ihram. After performing Hajj, he becomes indifferent to the worldliness and the life of the next world attracts him more. And some scholars are of the opinion that “Al-Hajjul Mabrur” is yet another name for the Hajj that is “Maqbul” (accepted and approved by Allah) and its sign is this that after performing it, a person is more prone to do good and to abstain from sin. (See Hayat, Umdatul Fiqh)
Hajj is Fard on a Muslim, only once in his lifetime, provided he has the means to perform it, that is after paying his debt, including Mahr (dowry), he has enough money necessary for his journey to Makkah and back home, for his stay there and for the sustenance of his family during his absence. A house, household effects and personal garments are included in the daily necessities of life.
If a person has money, as detailed above, Hajj is Fard on him, and he is a sinner, if he delays it. The common belief that Hajj is not Fard on a person, who has an unmarried daughter, till she is married, is absolutely wrong, and also that a person, before proceeding on Hajj, must set aside enough wealth for the dowry of his unmarried daughter.
The Hajj is not Fard on a woman, who neither has her own independent income, nor she has saved enough money of her own, to be able to perform Hajj. However, if her husband has enough wealth to take his wife and children along with him, he can certainly do so. But a man ought not to delay his Hajj until he saves enough money so as to take his wife also with him.
Hajj is Fard on that woman also who has personal ornaments that she can sell and meet her own expenses and those of her Mahram (a male relative with whom marriage is forbidden). For more details, consult the chapter entitled “Rules for Women”.
A Hadith says, “Hasten to perform Hajj, for who knows about the future. You may fall ill or may be forced by some need to forgo Hajj”. Another Hadith says, “Hajj has precedence over Nikah (to get married)” (See Kunz, Fadail-e-Hajj).
Some people have wrongly publicized that Hajj becomes Fard on a person, who has performed Umrah. Hajj is not Fard on a person who does not have enough wealth to perform it, even if he has performed Umrah in the months of Hajj.
There are three kinds of Hajj:
(a) Hajjul Ifrad: It is simple Hajj. A pilgrim before passing through the Miqat (the place for assuming Ihram), enters into the state of Ihram with the Niyyah (intention) of performing Hajj alone. He does not combine it with Umrah that is he takes care not to perform Umrah at all, in the months of Hajj. The person who performs Hajjul Ifrad is called Mufrid. Ifrad is the only kind of Hajj allowed to the residents of Makkah and Hill (that is those who reside between the Miqat and the precincts of Haram, e.g. Jeddah). They cannot perform Qiran or Tamattu.
(b) Hajjul Qiran: Literally, Qiran means to combine two things. A pilgrim who performs this kind of Hajj combines Hajj and Umrah, that is he assumes Ihram with the Niyyah to accomplish both of them.
The person who performs this kind of Hajj is called a Qarin.
After performing the Tawaf and Sa’ey for Umrah, a Qarin, should remain in the state of Ihram and perform Tawaful Qudum before Wuquf (staying) at Arafat which is Sunnah. It may please be noted that Tawaful Qudum is other than Tawaf for Umrah. The latter is not the substitute for the former. Likewise the Sa’ey for Umrah is quite distinct from the Sa’ey for Hajj. It is better for a Qarin to perform Sa’ey (for Hajj) after Tawaful Qudum, it is also a Sunnah. If he does not perform Sa’ey after Tawaful Qudum, he shall do it after Tawafuz Ziyarah.
For an Afaqi (a pilgrim who resides in a country situated outside the Miqat), Qiran is most virtuous, but the residents of Makkah and Hill are not allowed to perform it. If they do so, they will do wrong and Dam (sacrifice of a goat, a sheep or 1/7th of a cow or a camel) will be Wajib (obligatory) on them.
(c) Hajjut Tamattu: Tamattu literally means to enjoy or to take advantage of a facility. A pilgrim who performs this kind of Hajj, combines Umrah with Hajj in such a way that during the months of Hajj, before passing through the Miqat, he assumes Ihram for Umrah only. Then after he accomplishes Umrah at Makkah Mukarramah, having his head shaved or hair cut short, he relinquishes his Ihram but does not come back home. Then, on the 8th of Dhul Hijjah he resumes Ihram, this time with the intention of Hajj and performs the rites and duties of Hajj. The person who performs this kind of Hajj is called a Mutamatti. This kind of Hajj is also meant for the Afaqi. The residents of Makkah Mukarramah and Hill cannot perform it. If they do so, they will do wrong and Dam will be Wajib on them.
After performing the Umrah at Makkah, some pilgrims stay with their relatives at Jeddah. As they have already formed an intention to perform Tamattu, now when they go to Mina on the 8th of Dhul Hijjah, they cannot change their mind to perform Qiran. If they do so, Dam will be Wajib and in Shari’ah their Hajj will not be accepted as Qiran. Therefore, they should assume Ihram with the intention of performing simple Hajj. Their Hajj, together with the Umrah they have already performed, becomes Hajjut Tamattu.
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