Giving Allah a partner is a derogation of His Magnificence
The Qur’an appeals to human logic in its explanation of why Allah cannot have partners.
“Allah did not give birth to a son nor is there any God besides Him. [If there were], each god would have become an independent ruler over it creation and some would have tried to over-rule others! May Allah be exalted above all they attribute to Him.” [Qur’an, Surah Al-Mu'minun (23):91]
If there were to be a partner with Him, then the power would be shared between them and neither would have complete authority. This is turn would lead to irresolvable disagreement and chaos. Such corruption is not fitting for the majesty of the Creator. Consequently, the Qur’an offers a further logical argument for the absolute unity of God.
“It is not fitting that Allah give birth to a son. May he be exalted above all they associate with Him. When He decides something, He only tells it, “Be” and it is.” [Qur’an, Surah Maryam (19):35]
“(He is) the originator of the heavens and the earth. How could He have a son when He had no wife? He created everything and is aware of all things.” [Qur’an, Surah Al-An’am (6):101]
These and other similar verses confirm the omnipotence of God. Whatever He wishes, He commands in into existence. Its existence does not require the process of process of procreation as in the case of His creatures. Allah does not “beget” because He alone has the power to create from nothing.
Whereas humans and animals beget-they cannot create themselves. The gravity of the insult of attributing a son or a partner of God is so immense that Allah describes it in the responses of the heavens, the earth, and the mountains.
“Indeed you made an evil claim almost causing the heavens to tear, the earth to crack and the mountains to fall in ruins. To claim that the Most Beneficent [Allah] has a son when it is not fitting that the Most Beneficent should have a son!” [Qur’an, Surah Maryam (19):89-92]
According to the teachings of Islam, God created Jesus, son of Mary, without a father. His was virgin birth, a miracles and a sign from God. But the Qur’an reminds humankind that Allah also created Adam without a father or mother.
“The example of Jesus, in Allah’s sight, is like that of Adam. He created him from dust, then told him, “Be!” and he was. This is the truth from your Lord, so do not be among the doubtful.” [Qur’an, Surah Al-‘Imran (3):59-60]
The Qur’an repeatedly refers to the vastness of Allah’s creation in order for humans to realise that if He can creates all this splendour and diversity by a mere command, there should be no difficulty for Him to create a man without a father. The Qur’an emphasizes in great details the supreme and absolute unity of God because any compromise of that unity is the gravest of sins.
“Indeed, Allah does not forgive the worshipping of other besides Him, but He forgives sins less than that for whoever He wishes. And whoever worships others besides Allah has certainly invented a tremendous sin.” [Qur’an, Surah An-Nisa' (4):48]
By informing humankind about gravest sin and the reason for its gravity they are given a chance to rid themselves of this sin. They may invoke Allah’s mercy and carefully avoid the unforgivable crime of worshipping others besides Allah. If this is sincerely done, they become among those who deserve to receive God’s forgiveness on the Day of Judgement. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said:
“Allah says: “O son of Adam, as long as you call upon Me [Alone] and ask of Me, I will forgive you of whatever you have done-regardless. O son of Adam, even if your sins reached the clouds and you and you met Me, I would forgive you .O son of Adam, if you came to Me with sins of nearly as great as the earth and you met Me without worshipping anyone besides Me, I would grant you forgiveness nearly as great as the earth.”
The Day of Judgement
The other categories of damned people are those who do not believe in the Day of Judgement.
“They say, ‘There is no other life besides our present life in this world and we will never be resurrected.’ ” [Qur’an, Surah Al-An'am (6):29]
These people mockingly question the belief of another life after death.
“They say, ‘What! We will be raised up after being reduced to bones and dust?’ ” [Qur’an, Surah Al-Isra' (17):49]
The Qur’an answers their mockery with divine wisdom.
“The real losers are those who denied their meeting with Allah until the Hour suddenly catches them and they say, ‘It is too bad for us that we gave it no thought.’ They will bear burdens on their backs and burdens they will bear will certainly be evil.”[Qur’an, Surah Al-An'am (6):31]
Islam teaches that God allows everyone to see his signs so that they may contemplate and reflect, seek out the reason for existence, and then believe in Him. Despite self-evident divine mercies, most humans continue to reject them. May deny their meetings with God on the Day of Judgement and others ultimately deny existence of God Himself.
“I will show them My signs in the universe and in their own selves, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the truth. Is it not enough that your Lord witnesses all things! Indeed, they are doubt about the meeting with their Lord. It is He who surrounds everything.” [Qur’an, Surah Fussilat (41):53-54]
 See Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:117; Surah Ya-Sin, 36:82; Surah Ghafir, 40:68
 At Tirmidhi, An Nawawi’s Forty Hadith, No.4
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