Man needs the following basic elements in his food:
are important organic compounds whose components are made through the
union of carbon atoms with both hydrogen and oxygen (with the same
proportion found in water). The existence of carbohydrates in both
plants and animals is found in different forms, the simplest being the
monosaccharide like glucose and fructose. This monosaccharide combine
with each other through special links to form disaccharides, such as
sucrose found in sugar cane and beet, lactose (milk sugar), and maltose
(barley sugar). These also combine into trisaccharides like raffinose,
starch, and cellulose. Starch is found in many plants. It is enclosed
in their seeds, nodules and fruits. The cell walls of plants, on the
other hand, are mainly made of cellulose; and it is found in straw,
wood, cotton and in other groups of vegetables.
are organic compounds. They are formed by the union of carbon atoms
with hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms. Some of their components may
contain sulfur and phosphorus atoms. These elements exist in long amino
acid chains. Proteins are made of as many as twenty amino acids that
are linked through a special linkage called peptide bond. The protein
component enfolds on itself into a spiral. Proteins can be found in very
simple varieties made of only amino acids, and in very complex
varieties combined with other chemical compounds. They exist in living
creatures’ tissues and protoplasm, and play very important roles in many
of their biological activities such as the support and movement of
bones and muscles, transport and communication in blood and between the
nerves, writing the genetic code and stimulating different interactions
like secretion of enzymes and some hormones.
c. Oils and Fat
are basically formed by the union of carbon atoms with hydrogen and
oxygen atoms in higher proportions than that found in water and
carbohydrates. Some fats also contain sulfur and nitrogen. Oils and fats
have an identical chemical composition; if this composition remains
liquid at twenty degrees centigrade, it is called oil; but if it
solidifies, it is called a fat. Fats are known as glycosides because
they are composed of fatty acids and glycerin linked together. Glycerin,
oil, and fat are called lipids. Some plants such as olives, sesame,
black-eyed peas, soy beans, linseeds, cotton seeds, sunflower seeds,
palm seed oil, walnut; and some crops such as wheat, corn, and rice are
all considered as important sources of vegetable oil.
these compounds--carbohydrates, proteins, and fats--are characterized
by symmetry, precision and complexity in their form. This definitely
means that they could not have created themselves nor could they have
been created by accident. They are rather a proof of Allah’s absolute
ability, creative genius, complex creation and precise control. That is
why man’s attention was drawn to the creation of his food.
2.“We pour forth water in abundance,” (Surat Abasa (He Frowned):25)
water is poured in abundance from the sky, as what happens when it
rains. And if there was no water cycle around the earth, all the water
which is the main source of life where billions of living creatures live
and die every moment, would have been completely polluted. The amount
of water on earth is 1.4 billion cubic kilometers; 380,000 cubic
kilometers evaporates every year and then comes back to earth through
rain which is spread on earth according to Allah’s knowledge, wisdom and
ability! No one can govern the water cycle but Allah (Subhanahu wa
Ta’ala), and nobody can cause one drop of water to pour down from the
sky whenever and wherever he wants but Allah. That is why there is this
reference in the ayah that pouring water from the sky is a clear
evidence of Allah’s capability.
3.“And We split the earth into clefts,” (Surat Abasa (He Frowned):26)
are long cavities formed on any surface. “We split” here means the
vertical effusion of rain water when it is poured on earth; and it has
been proved that rain water spilled on earth can cause fissures in which
the depth varies between a few meters to two hundred meters. This
permits water to pierce through permeable rock layers so that water is
stored under the surface and its freshness and content is renewed due to
the presence of oxygen. These fissures connect with similar varied
rock fissures, stratification levels in sedimentary rocks, and
dissolved caves in calciferous and saliferous rocks that can reach
dozens of kilometers resulting in holes, routes, galleries, and agoras.
This connection promotes weathering of rocks and storage of
underground water, and enhances its role in making the fissures wider.
This is done through different aspects; by mechanical erosion (the
effect of frost), erosion caused by living creatures, and chemical
erosion (through dissolution, carbonization, conversion, liquidizing
and oxidation) which weaken the rocks’ cohesion and helps them to split
and fragmentize to make topsoil. It also helps plants get all they
need from water and nutritious components.
seems to me - Allah only knows--the closest meaning for “We split the
earth” since it comes immediately after reference to pouring water.
However, there is another possibility. The ayah may be referring to the
fact that the splitting of the earth is a result of the mixture between
the soil and rain water. Agricultural soil is composed mainly of
calcic minerals which are basically made of hydrated aluminum silicates
that are piled up on one another forming thin layers. This chemical
compound has a great affinity for water, so when it becomes wet, it
inflates and becomes fluffy, which allows it to float to the top. As a
result, the soil becomes very supple; it splits to let the stalk
emerge from inside the seed buried in the soil and takes it to the
surface. This occurs due to the water being displaced in an amount
equal to the amount of air found between calcic layers and due to the
colloidal movement of the collagenous substance through the soil’s
calcic minerals. This also occurs as a result of the repulsion of the
similar electric charges on the surface of those layers on one hand,
and of both poles of the bipolar water component on the other hand.
there is a microcosm of life in the soil, where billions of dormant
living creatures are found. When water reaches them, they arouse and
become active. These are seeds, tiny eggs and larva as well as bacteria
and fungi. The earth’s store of these living creatures varies from
microscopic organisms to vertebrates. So, it seems clear that the force
that leads to the growing of seeds is something not to be taken
we cause therein the grain to grow, and grapes and clover plants (i.e.
green fodder for the cattle), and olives and date-palms, and gardens
dense with many trees, and fruits and herbage, (To be) a provision and
benefit for you and your cattle.” (Surat Abasa (He Frowned): 27-32).
ayahs refer to all plant varieties that man and his cattle need for
their nourishment. The term “corn” covers the family of cereals like
wheat, barley, corn and rice. This is the most important family of
plants as far as the economy is concerned for both man and his cattle
because it also includes animal feed and pasturage; and its fields cover
most of the agricultural land on earth. Grapes belong to a family that
contains eleven genera and more than six hundred plant varieties.
refer to the wild forage for cattle and animals such as grasses and
berseem, but it is not always available. Olives represent the entire
olive family that contains twenty-two genera and more than five-hundred
plant varieties. Date palms represent the palm family; it contains
two-hundred genera and more than four thousand varieties of trees,
bushes and climbers across tropical and temperate regions.
are described as enclosed and full of high, abundant trees. Fruits are
all soft, delicious and sweet produce. It is said that “fruits” here
refers to all the produce except for grapes and pomegranates. Fodder is
all the herbage and pasturage eaten by cattle and animals such as grass
and different fresh and dried plant parts (straw and hay). This term
is far more general than the term “nutritious plants”; that is why this
section of ayahs ends with the explanation, "(To be) a provision and benefit for you and your cattle.” (Surat Abasa (He Frowned): 32).
scientific truths were not known until the twentieth century. Their
existence in the Qur’an which was revealed to the Prophet (sallAllahu
‘alaihi wa sallam) fourteen centuries ago is evidence that it is Allah’s
words and also a proof of the Prophethood of the last Messenger, May
peace and blessings be upon him, his family, his companions and all
those who follow his guidance until the last day.
Praise be to Allah, Master of the universe.
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