There are many factors that affect the growth of a child as well as
the building of his character which scientists divided into two categories:
First, basic factors, which are as follows:
1- Heredity which means
the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one
generation to another. Heredity plays an important role in growth, and
it differs from males to females. Examples of these genetic characteristics:
Color of eyes, hair, skin, blood type, and genetic diseases.
2 Environment: Where it affects clearly the growth
and can be divided into three sections:
• Natural environment which includes the climate and the weather. Studies have proven that
the growth of children differs according to the difference of natural
environment for each child.
• Social environment which includes family and the scope of its social and economic status
on the growth of a child where a child acquires a lot of behavior particularly
in his first years.
• Cultural environment: whenever the cultural environment more advanced and prosperous, it
will affect the child's growth positively. Therefore, we see the cultural
growth of children, who live in developed countries, more developed than other
3- The quality of food: Experiments have proven
that a child who takes complete nutrition grows better than a child who depends
on nutrition that does not contain enough vitamins, therefore we see delay in
the growth of children who live in the poorest third world countries.
Second, secondary factors that may be summed up
• Mother's infection of certain diseases during
pregnancy: It is well-known that diseases of a pregnant
woman affect her fetus, and consequently affect his growth.
• Preterm birth: It is
very common that giving birth to babies before the completion of embryonic
stage and before the completion of body functions usually lead to the failure
of these functions after birth.
• Geographical environment: We notice that the child who lives in physical environment includes
fresh air and beautiful nature such as the country or mountains grows better
than a child who lives in crowded cities.
Moreover, growth passes by several stages, they come in
the following order:
1- The embryonic stage: Begins from the moment of
fertilization passing by the development of an embryo up to birth.
2- Breast feeding stage: It takes place during the
first and the second years when a child becomes able to recognize his mother.
3- The stage of early childhood: It extends until
the third, the fourth, and the fifth years of age when a child starts to
discover the world more and more and his capabilities develop.
4- Medium and late stage of childhood: It starts
from the age of six and ends up in the age of twelve during which a child
starts to be independent from his mother bit by bit and starts to form a
private community for his own including friends after entering school.
5- Adolescence stage: It starts from adulthood and
differs from males to females. Females reach the stage of adulthood before
males, and this stage is deemed to be very important because a teenager is
known, sometimes, for recklessness, rashness, and lack of estimating matters
well. Therefore, the family in this period has to be keen to observe teenagers,
treat them well, and keep away from cruelty and rebuke because this method
shall increase their stubbornness and recklessness. The best thing the family
should do during this period is trying to approach and befriend them.
6- The stage of youth: It starts in third decade of
age and this stage is the stage of building and giving where the power of
society depends on its power and the awareness of its youth.
7- The stage of senility:
It starts at the end of youth stage and depends on average ages in the
society. In the third world countries, it starts in the beginning of seventies,
whereas in some European countries like Italy, it begins in nineties.
It is necessary to know the stages of growth and factors which affect
each stage because establishing societies today is based on the sound
construction of these promising generations, understanding, and analyzing their
requirements to build a sound society in addition to learn how to deal with all
stages and characters with which you shall deal in every stage.
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