Combats of honor in Ramadan
Ramadan is the month of Islamic conquests. It is the month of firm faith and glory of Muslims. A month for power and activity not for laziness and sluggishness. Of the most famous battles and conquests that took place in Ramadan were as follows:
First, the great battle of Badr which took place in the second year after Hijrah. The parties of the battle were the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the polytheists of Makkah. That day was called the decisive day because Allah (Glory be to Him) differentiated between the truth and falsehood by providing victory to His Prophet (peace be upon him) and the believers and letting down the infidels of Quraysh.
The number of Muslims were 313 fighters, where as the infidels were 1000 fighters. In that battle, the Prophet (peace be upon him) invoked his Lord for victory, then Allah (Glory be to Him) sent down His Victory on the believers and aided them with angels. Allah (may He be Exalted) says: "And Allâh has already made you victorious at Badr, when you were a weak little force. So fear Allâh much that you may be grateful. * (Remember) when you (Muhammad peace be upon him) said to the believers, "Is it not enough for you that your Lord (Allâh) should help you with three thousand angels sent down?" * Yes, if you hold on to patience and piety, and the enemy comes rushing at you; your Lord will help you with five thousand angels having marks (of distinction)." [Surat Al `Imran: 123 - 125].
Thus, Islam gained victory, polytheism was defeated, seventy polytheists were killed, and seventy fighters were captured. Chiefs of polytheists were killed in that battle including Abu Jahl (`Amr ibn Hisham), the most dangerous enemy of Islam.
Second, the Conquest of Makkah that took place in the eighth year after the Prophet's Hijrah. The Prophet (peace be upon him) set out in Ramadan along with 10.000 Companions to open Makkah for Islam, entered it, circumambulated the House, then destroyed 360 idols around the Ka`bah. Thereafter, he entered the Ka`bah, offered two Rak`ahs, pronounced Takbir in the four corners of the House, and delivered a great speech to people. The people of Makkah, men and women, gave him homage to Islam and the entire Makkah has become a city of Islam and faith. The Prophet (peace be upon him) stayed 19 days in Makkah renewing the features of the religion, guiding people to Islam, and sending his envoys around Makkah to call people to Islam and demolishing idols.
`Abdullah in `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet (peace be upon him) opened Makkah for Islam in Ramadan. [Reported by Al Bukhari].
Al Bukhari and Muslim reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) set out to Medina in Ramadan and took along with him ten thousand Companions after eight and half years of his arrival to Medina. Muslims marched to Makkah following the footsteps of the Prophet and doing as he did until he reached Al Kadid which is a well between `Asfan and Qadid, they broke their fasting until they entered Makkah.
Abu Sa`id Al Khudry (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: "We travelled with the Messenger of Allah to Makkah when we were fasting. We made a stop and the Messenger of Allah said: You have drawn near to your enemy and breaking the fast will make you stronger. This was a concession, so some of us fasted and some did not. Then we made another stop and he said: In the morning you are going to meet your enemy. And breaking the fast will make you stronger, so break the fast. He emphasized it (the second time), so we broke the fast." [Reported by Muslim]
Third, in Ramadan in the fifth year, Muslims were preparing themselves to dig the Trench, but the battle took in Shawwal in the same year.
Fourth, in Ramadan, the battle of Tabuk took place in the ninth year after Hijrah.
Fifth, in Ramadan, in the eighth year after Hijrah, the Prophet (peace be upon him) sent Khalid ibn Al Walid (may Allah be pleased with him) to destroy the shrine of Al `Uzza, sent `Amr ibn Al `As (may Allah be pleased with him) to destroy Suwa`, and sent Sa`d ibn Zayd Al Ashhaly (may Allah be pleased with him) to destroy Manah. In Ramadan of the ninth year, the Prophet (peace be upon him) sent Al Mughirah ibn Shu`abah to destroy Allat which Thaqif used to worship.
Sixth, the battle of Al Buwayb between Muslims and Magi under the leadership of Al Muthanna ibn Harithah (may Allah be pleased with him) in the thirteenth year after Hijrah during the caliphate of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him). Al Muthanna made up his mind to break his fast and Muslims followed his example, and Muslims were victorious like the victory of Al Yarmouk battle in the Levant.
Seventh, the Battle of Al Qadisiyyah : It was the decisive battle between Muslims and the Persians in Ramadan of year 14th AH under the leadership of Sa`d ibn Abu Waqqas (may Allah be pleased with him) during the caliphate of `Umar ibn Al Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him). During that battle, Muslims suffered from elephants and horses feared them, but the heroes of Islam took off their eyes with arrows and cut their trunks with their swords, causing them to flee away stepping their own troops, and Muslims gained a glorious victory.
Eighth, opening of Andalusia which took place in Ramadan 92 AH under the leadership of Tariq ibn Ziyad who had 12.000 soldiers, most of them were Berbers and defeated Al Quti army which overnumbered [40.000 soldiers] and killed their king, and was the beginning of Islamic opening to Andalusia.
Ninth, the battle of Poitiers which was near the French city of Poitiers near Paris in which the famous battle between Muslims under the leadership of `Abdur-Rahman Al Ghafiqy and crusaders in 114 AH at the end of Sha`ban and the beginning of Ramadan. Al Ghafiqy (may Allah bestow mercy on his soul) was killed in that battle and Muslims were defeated, and that was the reason for stopping the Islamic conquest in Europe.
Tenth, the opening of `Ammoriyah which was a big city near Ancara in Turkey. It was one of the best Christian countries and more honorable to them than Constantinople. The Romans attacked Muslims and killed some of them, took men as prisoners, and captured women. Consequently, an Arab woman cried "O Mu`tasim," and the news reached Al Mu`tasim who answered her while he was sitting on his throne: Here I am responding to you. He prepared a huge army and marched to `Ammoriyah which he seized in Ramadan in 223 AH.
Eleventh, Az-Zallaqah battle which took place in Ramadan in 479 AH in Andalusia between Al Murabitin army under the leadership of Yusuf ibn Tashfin who entered Andalusia from Morocco and the crusaders. The commander of the crusaders wrote a book in which he threatened Muslims, thereupon Ibn Tashfin wrote at the back of his letter: You shall see our power. Yusuf led the battle himself when he was at the age of 84 and gained victory over the crusaders.
Twelveth, the Battle of `Ayn Jalut (The Spring of Goliath): It is a village near Nablus where the battle took place between Muslims and Tatars in 658 AH under the leadership of the Sultan of Egypt, Qutuz. When Qutuz engaged in the battle, he throw away his helmet and cried: O my Islam. He fought bravely and strongly until Tatars were defeated, then he prostrated on the ground and offered two Rak`ahs as gratitude to Allah (Glory be to Him).
Thirteenth, Shaqhab battle or Marj As-Safr which is a place near Damascus at the beginning of Ramadan 702 AH between Muslims from the Levant and Egypt from one side and Tatars from the other side under the leadership of An-Nasir Muhammad ibn Qalawun along with Shaykh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyah who was encouraging and commanding them with fight and promised them with victory as long as they take the side of Allah. People used to say to him: Say: We shall gain victory with the will of Allah. He replied: I have confident in Allah that He shall provide us with victory. Shaykh-ul-Islam gave them a Fatwa (Religious verdict) to break the fast in Ramadan, and used to eat publically before emirs and soldiers to know that he broke his fast; afterwards Tatars were defeated.
Fourteenth, In Ramadan 1393 AH, Egyptians defeated the Jews in the battle of Ramadan (the war of October) or what is called (the battle of crossing the Suez canal) to take back Sinai.
 See Al Fiqh Al Islamy wa-adillatih of Dr. Wahbah Az-Zihily 3:10, and Mjalis Ramadaniyyah of Dr. Salman Al `Odah (p. 125) along with the following detailed references which I shall mention with Allah's Willing.
 See: Ar-Rahiq Al Makhtum (P. 352) and the following pages.
 Reported by Al Bukhari in the book of battles, chapter on the opening battle in Ramadan 4: 1558 (4026).
 Reported by Al Bukhari in the previous position No. (4027) and Muslim in the book of fasting, chapter on the permissibility of observing fasting and breaking the fast in Ramadan for a traveler where there is no sin 2: 784 (113).
 Reported by Muslim in the book of fasting, chapter on the reward of the one who breaks his fasting during travel 2: 789 (1120).
 See: Ar-Rahiq Al Makhtum (p. 366).
 See: IBID (p. 401).
 Al Bowayb is a river in Iraq in place of Kufa (Mu`jam Al Buldan 1: 512).
 See: Al Bidayah wan-Nihayah 7: 29, and Mu`jam Al Ma`arik Al Harbiyyah of Majid Al-Lahham (p. 89).
 It was said: It took place in Shawwal or in Muharram, may be in 14 or 15 or 16 AH.
 See: Al Bidayah wan-Nihayah 7: 37, Al Kamel fi At-Tarikh 2: 297, and Tarikh Al Islam 3: 143.
 See: At-Tarikh Al Andalusy of Dr. `Abdur-Rahman Al Hijjy (p. 46) and the following pages (this is book one of the best books in the history of Andalusia).
 See: Mu`jam Al Ma`arik Al Harbiyyah of Majid Al-Lahham (p. 78), Mawsu`at Al Hurub of Haytham Hilal (p. 184), and Al Mawsu`ah Al `Arabiyyah Al `Alamiyyah 5: 212.
 See: Al Kamel fi At-Tarikh 6: 39, Al Bidayah wan-Nihayah 10: 285, and Tarikh At-Tabary 5: 235.
 See: Mu`jam Al Ma`arik Al Harbiyyah of Majid Al-Lahham (p. 169), Mawsu`at Al Hurub of Haytham Hilal (p. 190).
 See: As-Suluk Li Ma`rifat Duwal Al Muluk of Al Maqrizy 1: 514 and Al Bidayah wan-Nihayah 13: 220.
 Shaqhab is place near Damascus (Taj Al `Arus 3: 154).
 See: Al Bidayah wan-Nihayah 14: 23, Al `Uqud Ad-Durriyyah (p. 191), Ma`rakat Shaqhab of Dr. Muhammad Lotfy As-Sabbagh (Majallat Al Buhuth Al Islamiyyah 10: 213), and Al Intisar `Ala At-Tatar of Samy ibn Khalid Al Hamud) on the web.
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