After the Hudaibiyya treaty the Prophet, along with his Companions, could go to Makkah to perform 'Umrah. While they were in Makkah the non-Muslims left the town. The Prophet stayed for three days performing the rituals of 'Umrah.
Three months after his return to Madina his attention was drawn to some Arab Christian states on the Arabian border with Syria. Shurahbil was the chief of the Busra State. Like other rulers, he had received a letter from the Prophet, inviting him to accept Islam. Instead, he had killed Harith ibn Umayr, who had brought the Prophet's letter to him.
On learning of this, the Prophet dispatched an army of 3,000 men to Busra, led by Zayd ibn Haritha. Before the army set out, the Prophet asked them not to kill any hermit, woman or child and not to fell any trees. Shurahbil had an army of 100,000 soldiers, yet the Muslims won the battle. When Zayd was martyred in battle, Ja'far and Abdullah ibn Rawaha took charge. Finally, it was Khalid ibn Walid who took command and brought victory for the Muslims. The Battle of Muta was the first encounter between Islam and Christianity.
Although the Makkan Quraish were a party to the Hudaibiyya treaty, they soon broke the agreement. The Prophet, therefore, led an army of 10,000 Muslims towards Makka. It was eight years since the Hijra. The Makkans were no match for the Muslims and they gave up without a fight. Although the Prophet and his Companions had earlier been persecuted by them, the Prophet allowed the Makkans to go unharmed.
The Prophet then went to the Ka'ba. The non-Muslims had placed hundreds of idols in its compound. He had all these idols destroyed, saving: 'Truth has come and falsehood has vanished. Falsehood, by its nature, is to vanish.' The Ka'ba echoed to this declaration of Allah and the Muslims offered Prayers there. In a speech the Prophet proclaimed the equality of all men, regardless of race or colour.
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