Mercy not slaughter
When Sa'd ibn 'Ubadah in the squadron of the Ansar passed by Abu Sufyan he called out, 'Today is a day of slaughter. Today there is no more sanctuary. Today Allah has humbled the Quraysh.'
When the Messenger of Allah's squadron came near Abu Sufyan, he complained, 'Messenger of Allah, did you not hear what Sa'd said?'
'What was that?' said the Messenger of Allah, and Abu Sufyan repeated what Sa'd had called out.
The Messenger of Allah disliked Sa'd's comments and replied, 'Today is a day of mercy and forgiveness when Allah will exalt the Quraysh and raise honour for the Ka'bah.'
He then sent for Sa'd, took the standard from him and gave it to his son Qays. This meant that the standard did not really leave Sa'd because it only went to his son. But Abu Sufyan was satisfied and Sa'd was not too upset.
A small skirmish broke out between Safwan ibn Umayyah, ' lkrimah ibn Abi Jahl and Suhayl ibn 'Amr, who came up against the companions of Khalid ibn al-Walid. Twelve of the idol worshippers were killed when they tried to stop the advance of the Muslim forces. The rest gave in without further bloodshed. The Messenger of Allah had told his men when they entered Makkah, 'Do not fight anyone unless they attack you.'
Purifying the Haram
The Messenger of Allah got down from his camel when everything had calmed down. He went to the Ka'bah first and performed tawaf. Around the Ka'bah were three hundred and sixty idols. With a stick he was carrying he began to push them over, saying, 'The truth has come and falsehood has vanished away. Falsehood is ever vanishing.’ (Surah Al-Isra’, 17: 81) 'The truth has come and falsehood originates not nor brings again.' (Surah Saba', 34: 49) The idols collapsed one by one, falling onto their faces. Pictures and statues were found in the Ka'bah and the Messenger of Allah ordered that they should also be destroyed.
A day of piety
Having performed tawaf, the Messenger of Allah called 'Uthman ibn Talhah who had the key of the Ka'bah. The doors were unlocked and he went in. He had asked 'Uthman for the key before the hijrah to Madinah but he had received a rude answer and insults. He had shown tolerance by answering, ' 'Uthman, one day you will see this key in my hand. I will then put it where I wish.'
'Uthman had retorted, 'The Quraysh will be destroyed and humiliated on that day.'
'No,' said the Messenger of Allah, 'Rather it will be a day of prosperity and security for the Quraysh.' His words made such an impression on 'Uthman ibn Talhah that he came to believe the prediction would eventually take place.
When the Messenger of Allah came out of the Ka'bah, 'Ali ibn Abi Talib stood up holding the key of the Ka'bah in his hand. He said to the Messenger of Allah, 'Grant us the guardianship of the Ka'bah along with providing water for the pilgrims.'
The Messenger of Allah asked, 'Where is 'Uthman ibn Talhah?'
'Uthman was summoned and the Messenger of Allah said to him, 'Here is your key, 'Uthman. Today is a day of piety and good faith. Keep it forever as an inheritance. Only a tyrant would take it from you.'
Islam: Tawhid and unity
The Messenger of Allah opened the door of the Ka'bah. The Quraysh had filled the mosque, and were waiting in rows to see what he would do. Holding the door frame, he said,
‘There is no god but Allah alone. He has no partner. He has made good His promise. He has helped His servant and He alone has put all allies to flight. Every claim of privilege, property or bloodline are abolished by me today except for the custody of the Ka'bah and providing water for the pilgrims.
O people of the Quraysh! Allah has abolished the haughtiness of the Jahiliyyah and its veneration of ancestors. People all spring from Adam, and Adam came from dust.' Then he recited this verse, 'O mankind, We have created you male and female, and appointed you races and tribes, that you may know one another. Surely the noblest among you in the sight of Allah is the most godfearing of you. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware.” (Surah Al-Hujuraat, 49: 13)
Prophet of Love, Prophet of Mercy
Then the Messenger of Allah said, 'Men of the Quraysh! What do you think I will do to you?'
They said, 'We hope for the best. You are a noble brother and the son of a noble brother!'
He replied, 'I say to you what Yusuf said to his brothers, "No reproach shall be on you this day." Go on your way, you are free.'
He ordered Bilal to climb up on the roof of the Ka'bah and give the adhan. It was the first time the leaders of the Quraysh had heard the word of Allah rising up; the valley of Makkah reverberated with the sound. The Messenger of Allah entered the house of Umm Hani bint Abi Talib, had a bath and prayed eight rak'ats of Salatu'l-Fath, the Prayer of Victory, to thank Allah for the conquest.
In the meantime, Fatimah, a woman of the Banu Makhzum had been apprehended for theft. Her community went to Usamah ibn Zayd, hoping that he could persuade the Messenger of Allah to intercede on her behalf. When he spoke to the Messenger of Allah about it, however, he was put to shame.
'Do you dare to speak to me about one of the hudud, the limits laid down by Allah?' the Messenger of Allah asked him.
Usamah beseeched him, 'Pray for my forgiveness, Messenger of Allah!'
That evening the Messenger of Allah made a speech. After praising Allah, he said, 'The people before you were destroyed because when one of their noblemen stole, they ignored the offence but when one of the poor people stole, they administered the hadd (prescribed punishment). By the One who holds my life in His hand, if Fatimah bint Muhammad, were to steal, I would have her hand cut off.'
Then he ordered that the woman's right hand be cut off. She genuinely repented of her sin and went on to marry and lead a normal life.
Paying homage in Islam
A large crowd gathered in Makkah to accept Islam and to pay homage to the Messenger of Allah. He received them on Mount Safa where they took the oath of allegiance. They promised to obey Allah and His Messenger to the best of their ability.
When the men had pledged their faith, the women took the oath, including Hind bint 'Utbah, the wife of Abu Sufyan. She was veiled and tried to disguise herself because of what she had done to Hamzah, but the Messenger of Allah recognized her bold talk. 'Forgive what is past and Allah will forgive you,' she said to him.
‘My life is with you and my death will be among you'
When Allah opened up Makkah to His Messenger, and he was back in his own homeland and city of birth once more, the Ansar said among themselves, 'Allah has given him power over his homeland and city so he will probably stay here and not return to Madinah.'
The Messenger of Allah asked them what they were talking about. No one else knew about the conversation. At first they were too shy to tell him but eventually they confessed what they had said.
He assured them, 'I seek refuge with Allah! I will live with you and I will die among you.'
Removing all vestiges of idol worship
The Messenger of Allah sent groups of his Companions to destroy the idols standing round the Ka'bah. All of the idols were broken including al-Lat, al-'Uzza, and Manat. He sent a crier to announce in Makkah, Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should destroy any idol in his house.' He also sent representatives to the surrounding tribes telling them to destroy their idols.
Then the Messenger of Allah assembled the Muslims in Makkah and declared that the city would be a sanctuary forever. He said, 'It is not lawful for anyone who believes in Allah and the Hereafter to spill blood in the city nor to cut down a tree. It was not lawful for anyone before me nor shall it be lawful for anyone after me.' The Messenger of Allah then returned to Madinah.
Outcome of the conquest of Makkah
The conquest of Makkah had a tremendous impact on the Arabs. It showed that lslam was the religion of Allah and paved the way for the whole of Arabia to accept the faith. From far and wide people came to pay their respects to the Messenger of Allah and to accept Islam at his hands.
Allah spoke the truth:
“When comes the help of Allah and victory and you see people entering the religion of Allah in throngs.” (Surah al-Nasr, 110: 1- 2)
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