The eleventh year of the Hijra being the last year of Muhammad’s life, was spent at Al-Madienah. There he settled the organisation of the provincial and tribal communities which had adopted Islam and become the component parts of the Muslim federation, more officers had to be deputed to the interior provinces for the purpose of teaching their inhabitants the precepts of the religion, administering justice, and collecting Zakat. Muaz Ibn Jabal was sent to Yemen. On his departure to that distant province, the Prophet enjoined him to use his own discretion, in the event of his being unable to find express authority in the Qu’ran or the Sunnah [acts of the Prophet]. Ali was deputed to Yamama in the south–east of the Peninsula. To them the Prophet said: “Never decide between any two parties who come to you for justice unless you first hear both of them.”
A force was now being prepared under Osama, the son of Zaid, who was killed at Muta, against the Byzantines, to exact the long delayed reparation for the murder of the envoy in Syria, as the news of the Prophet’s sickness and failing health had caused that expedition to be stopped. This news was soon noised abroad and produced disorder in some districts. Three pretenders had arisen who gave themselves out as prophets, and tried by all kinds of imposture to win over their tribes. The most dangerous of these pretenders was known as Al- Aswad. He was a chief of Yemen and a man of great wealth and rationality, and a clever conjurer. He soon succeeded in gaining over his tribesmen, and with their help reduced to subjection many of the neighbouring towns. He killed Shahr whom the Prophet had appointed as Governor of Sanna in the place of his father, Bazan who had just died. Bazan had been the viceroy of Yemen, under Chosrores of Persia, and after he had adopted Islam, was allowed by the Prophet to remain as Governor of Yemen. He was able to convert to Islam all the Persian colony in that province.
Al Aswad, the conjurer, had now killed Shahr but, soon after, he was massacred by the Persians of Yemen. The other two pretenders, Tulayha and Haroun by name were not suppressed until after the death of the Prophet, during the reign of Abu Bakr. Haroun, better known as Mussaylamah, addressed to the Prophet a letter which ran as follows; “From Mussaylamah, the Prophet of God to Muhammad the Prophet of God. Peace be to you. I am your partner. Let the exercise of authority be divided between us. Half the earth will be mine, and half will belong to your Quraish. But the Quraishites are too greedy to be satisfied with a just division”. To this letter the Prophet replied as follows: “From Muhammad, the Apostle of God, to Mussaylamah, the liar. Peace be to those who follow the right path. The earth belongs to God. It is He Who makes to reign whomsoever He pleases. Only those will prosper who fear the Lord”.
The health of the Prophet grew worse. His last days were remarkable for the calmness and peacefulness of his mind. He was able, though weak and feeble, to lead the public prayers, until within three days of his death. He requested that he might be permitted to stay at Ayesha’s house, close to the mosque, during his illness, an arrangement to which his other wives assented. As long his strength lasted, he took part in the public prayers. The last time he appeared in the mosque, he addressed the congregation, after the usual prayers were over, in the following words: “O Muslims! If I have wronged anyone of you, here I am to answer for it; if I owe aught to anyone; all I may happen to possess belongs to you. A man in the crowd rose and claimed three Dirhams, which he had given to a poor man at the request of the Prophet. They were immediately paid back with these words: “Better to blush in this world than in the next.” The Prophet then prayed and implored God’s mercy for those who had fallen in the persecution of their enemies. He recommended to all his followers the observance of religious duties. He concluded his advice with the following verse of the Qu’ran: “The future mansion [of paradise] We will give unto them who do not seek to exalt themselves on earth or to do wrong; for a happy issue shall attend the pious.” ] 28:83 [
Then he spoke with emotion, and with a voice still so powerful as to reach beyond the outer doors of the mosque: “By the Lord in Whose hand lies the soul of Muhammad,” he said, “as to myself no man can lay hold on me in any matter; I have not made lawful anything excepting what God has made lawful; nor have I prohibited aught, but that which God in His Book has prohibited.” Then turning to the women who sat close by, the exclaimed: “O Fatima, my daughter, and Safia, my aunt, work you both that which shall procure you acceptance with the Lord; for verily I have no power to save you in any wise.” He then rose and re-entered the house of Ayesha. 
 Ibn Hisham; Al Wakidi; Ibn Athir.
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