During the tenth year of the Hijra as in the preceding one, numerous embassies continued to pour into Al-Madienah from all parts of Arabia to testify to the adhesion of their chiefs and their tribes. Teachers were sent by the Prophets into the different provinces to teach the new converts the principles and precepts of Islam. These teachers were consistently given the following injunctions when they were about to depart on their mission: “Deal gently with people and be not harsh; cheer them, and do not look down upon them with disrespect. You will meet with many believers in the Holy Scriptures, who will ask you “What is the key to heaven?” Answer them that it [the key to heaven] is to bear witness to Divine truth and to do good.”.
Thus, the mission of the Prophet Muhammad was now accomplished; the whole work was achieved during his lifetime. Idolatry with its nameless abominations was entirely destroyed. The people who were sunk in superstition, cruelty and vice, in regions where spiritual life was utterly unknown, were now united in one bond of faith. The tribes which had been, from time immemorial, engaged in perpetual wars were now united together by the ties of brotherhood. Henceforth, their aims are not confined to this earth alone; but there is something beyond the grave–much higher, purer and diviner–calling them to the practice of their faith, charity, goodness, and justice. They could now perceive that God was not that which they had carved out of wood or stone, but the Almighty, the Loving, the Merciful the Creator of the Universe.
On the return of the sacred month of the pilgrimage, the Prophet under the feeling of his approaching end, determined to make a farewell pilgrimage to Makkah. In February 632, he left Al-Madienah with a very considerable gathering of Muslims. It is stated that from 90.000 to 140.000 persons accompanied the Prophet. On his arrival at the holy places, from which every trace of the old superstition had been removed, and which in accordance with his orders of the previous year, no idolater was to visit unless he assumed the pilgrim clothing. Before completion all pilgrimage rites, he addressed the assembled multitude from the top of Arafat Mount, in the following words:
“You people! Listen to my words, for I know not whether another year will be awarded to me after this year to find myself amongst you. Your lives and property are sacred and inviolable amongst one another until you appear before the Lord, as this day and this month is sacred for all; and remember; you shall have to appear before your Lord Who shall demand from you an account for all your actions. You people, you have rights over your wives, and your wives have rights over you…Verily you have taken them on the security of God and have made their persons lawful unto you by the words of God. And your slaves see that you feed them with such food as you eat yourselves, and clothe them with the stuff you wear, and if they commit a fault which you are not inclined to forgive, then part with them; for they are the servants of the Lord and are not to be harshly treated. You people listen to my words and understand them. Know that all Muslims are brothers. You are one brotherhood; but no man shall take aught from his brother, unless by his free consent. Keep yourselves from injustice. Let him who is present tell this to him who is absent. It may be, that he who is told this afterwards may remember better than he who has now heard it.”
The Prophet concluded his sermon by exclaiming, “O Lord I have fulfilled my message and accomplished my work” The assembled multitude all in one voice cried, “Yea verily thou hast,” The Prophet again exclaimed, “O Lord I beseech thee, bear witness unto it.”
Having carefully performed all the pilgrimage ceremonies that his example might be followed by all Muslims for all succeeding ages, the Prophet returned with his followers to Al-Madienah.
 i.e. Jews or Christians.
 Ibn Hisham.
 Ibn Hisham, Ibn Athir Vol. 2.
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